Body Composition and Energy Needs during Growth

  • Malcolm A. Holliday


Energy requirement throughout growth relates to body composition in several ways. The components of energy requirement are basal metabolic rate (BMR), energy spent in physical activity and in response to cold, and energy used in growth. The most characteristic feature of this energy requirement is a decline in requirement per kilogram body weight from more than 100 to less than 45 kcal/kg per day (Figure 1). Much of this decline is caused by a decrease in BMR per kilogram. The decline in BMR per kilogram is secondary to a differential in the rate of growth of organs that have a high resting metabolic rate—brain, liver, heart, and kidney relative to the rate of growth of muscle mass, which has a low resting metabolic rate (Holliday, 1971).


Body Composition Metabolic Rate Muscle Mass Energy Intake Energy Requirement 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Malcolm A. Holliday
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsUniversity of California, San Francisco Medical CenterSan FranciscoUSA

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