Patterns of Early Neurological Development

  • Ingeborg Brandt


There is now greater understanding of the hitherto secret life of the fetus. Many recent advances have been made, such as continuous real-time ultrasound observations of early fetal movements (i.e., from 7 postmenustrual weeks) and behavior (de Vries et al., 1982; Prechtl, 1983b). Since fetal motor behavior represents central nervous system (CNS) output, a limited neurological examination of the young fetus is now possible (see Section 3). Careful longitudinal examinations of normal fetal behavior and its variability by real-time ultrasound during the first half of pregnancy (de Vries et al., 1982) serve as a basis for this assessment. Up to 20 weeks, ultrasound examination is facilitated by the fact that the entire fetus can be visualized within the field of one ultrasound transducer.


Newborn Infant Fetal Movement Bonn Result Bonn Study Head Lift 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amiel-Tison, C., 1968, Neurological evaluation of the maturity of newborn infants, Arch. Dis. Child. 43: 89–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. André-Thomas, and Saint-Anne Dargassies, S., 1952, Etudes Neurologiques sur le Nouveau-Né et le Jeune Nourrisson, Masson, Paris.Google Scholar
  3. André-Thomas, Chesni, Y., and Saint-Anne Dargassies, S., 1960, The neurological examination of the infant, Little Club Clinics Develop. Med., No. 1.Google Scholar
  4. Apgar, V., 1953, A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant, Curr. Res. Anesth. Analg. 32: 260–267.Google Scholar
  5. Babcock, D. S., and Han, B. K., 1981, Cranial Ultraso- nography of Infants, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  6. Babinski, M. J., 1896, Sur le réflexe cutané plantaire dans certaines affections organiques du systemè nerveux central, C. R. Soc. Biol. 3: 207–208.Google Scholar
  7. Babson, S. G., and McKinnon, C. M., 1967, Determination of gestational age in premature infants, J. Lancet 87: 174–177.Google Scholar
  8. Ballard, J. L., Kazmaier Novak, K., and Driver, M., 1979, A simplified score for assessment of fetal maturation of newly born infants, J. Pediatr. 95: 769–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Battaglia, F., and Lubchenco, L. O., 1967, A practical classification of newborn infants by weight and gestational age, J. Pediatr. 71: 159–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beintema, D. J., 1968, A neurological study of newborn infants, Clin. Dev. Med. 28: 1–178.Google Scholar
  11. Biermann-van Eendenburg, M. E. C., Jurgens-van der Zee, A. D., Olinga, A. A., Huisjes, H. H., and Touwen, B. C. L., 1981, Predictive value of neonatal neurological examination: A follow-up study at 18 months, Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 23: 296–305.Google Scholar
  12. Birnholz, J. C., and Benacerraf, B. R., 1983, The development of human fetal hearing, Science 222: 516–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boulder Committee, 1970, Embryonic vertebrate central nervous system: Revised terminology, Anat. Rec. 166: 257–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brand, M., 1983, Fetal and neonatal intracranial hemorrhages—Incidence, prognosis, prevention, presented at the Eleventh Deutscher Kongress für Perinatale Medizin, Berlin, 1983.Google Scholar
  15. Brandt, I., 1975, Postnatale Entwicklung von Früh-Mangelgeborenen, Gynaekologe 8: 219–233.Google Scholar
  16. Brandt, I., 1976, Dynamics of head circumference growth before and after term, in: The Biology of Human Fetal Growth ( D. F. Roberts and A. M. Thomson, eds.), pp. 109–136. Taylor and Francis, London.Google Scholar
  17. Brandt, I., 1978, Growth dynamics of low birth weight infants with emphasis on the perinatal period, in: Human Growth, A Comprehensive Treatise ( F. Falkner and J. M. Tanner, eds.), Vol. 2, pp. 557–617, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Brandt, I., 1983, Griffiths-Entwicklungsskalen (GES) zur Beurteilung der Entwicklung in den ersten beiden Lebensjahren, Beltz Verlag, Weinheim, pp. 34–36, 45–50.Google Scholar
  19. Brandt, I., 1984, Human growth up to six years—Distance and velocity, in: Genetic and Environmental Factors During the Growth Period ( S. Susanne, ed.), pp. 101–122, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brandt, I., and Schröder, R., 1976, Postnatales Aulholwachstum des Kopfumfanges nach intrauteriner Mangelernährung, Monatsschr. Kinderheilkd. 124: 475–477.Google Scholar
  21. Bratteby, L. E., and Anderson, L., 1976, Continuous monitoring of motor activity in the newborn, in: Fifth European Congress of Perinatal Medicine, pp. 141–149, Uppsala.Google Scholar
  22. Brazelton, T. B., 1961, Psychophysiologie reactions in the neonate. II. Effect of maternal medication in the neonate and his behavior, J. Pediatr. 58: 513–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brazelton, T. B., 1973, Neonatal behavioral assessment scale, Clin. Dev. Med. 50: 1–66.Google Scholar
  24. Brett, E. M., 1965, The estimation of foetal maturity by the neurological examination of the neonate, in: Gestational Age, Size and Maturity (M. Dawkins and B. MacGregor, eds.), Clin. Dev. Med., 19: 105–115.Google Scholar
  25. Brown, J. K., Purvis, R. J., Forfar, J. O., and Cockburn, F., 1974, Neurological aspects of perinatal asphyxia, Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 16: 567–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Capurro, H., Konichezky, S., Fonseca, D., and CaldeyroBarcia, R., 1978, A simplified method for diagnosis of gestational age in the newborn infant, J. Pediatr. 93: 120–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chamberlin, H. R., 1975, Mental retardation, in: Pediatric Neurology, ( T. W. Farmer, ed.), 2nd ed., pp. 90–117, Harper and Row, Hagerstown, Maryland.Google Scholar
  28. Cooke, R. W. I., 1983, Intraventricular haemorrhage, Lancet 1: 878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Couture, A., and Cadier, L., 1983, Echographie Cérébrale par Voie Transfontanellaire, Vigot, Paris.Google Scholar
  30. Dawes, G. S., 1976, The potential of fetal breathing measurements in clinical research, in: Proceedings of Fifth European Congress of Perinatal Medicine, Dawes, G. S., eds.) pp. 175–176, Uppsala.Google Scholar
  31. DeReuck, J., and Richardson, E. P. 1972, Pathogenesis and evolution of periventricular leukomalacia in infancy, Arch. Neurol. 27: 229–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Donovan, D. E., Coues, P., and Paine, R. S., 1962, The prognostic implications of neurological abnormalities in the neonatal period. Neurology (New York) 12: 910–914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dubowitz, L. M. S., and Dubowitz, V., 1977, Gestational Age of the Newborn, Addison-Wesley, London.Google Scholar
  34. Dubowitz, L. M. S., Dubowitz, V., and Goldberg, C., 1970, Clinical assessment of gestational age in the newborn infant, J Pediatr. 77: 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dubowtiz, L. M. S., and Dubowitz, V., 1981, The Neurological Assessment of the Preterm and Full-term Newborn Infant, Clin. Dev. Med., 79: 1–103.Google Scholar
  36. Dubowitz, L. M. S., Dubowitz, V., Palmer, P., and Verghote, M., 1980, A new approach to the neurological assessment of the preterm and full-term newborn infant, Brain Dev. 2: 3–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dubowitz, L. M. S., Levene, M. I., Morante, A., Palmer, P., and Dubowitz, V., 1981, Neurologic signs in neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage: A correlation with real-time ultrasound, J Pediatr. 99: 127–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Escardó, F., and de Coriat, L. F., 1960, Development of postural and tonic patterns in the newborn infant, Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 7: 511–525.Google Scholar
  39. Farr, V., Mitchell, R. G., Neligan, G. A., and Parkin, J. M., 1966a, The definition of some external characteristics used in the assessment of gestational age in the newborn infant, Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 8: 507–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fan, V., Kerridge, D. F., and Mitchell, R. G., 1966b, The value of some external characteristics in the assessment of gestational age at birth, Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 8: 657–660.Google Scholar
  41. Ferrari, F., Grosoli, M. V., Fontana, G., and Cavazzuti, G. B., 1983, Neurobehavioural comparison of low-risk preterm and fullterm infants at term conceptional age, Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 25: 450–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Finnström, O., 1971, Studies on maturity in newborn infants, III, Neurological examination, Neuropaediatrie 3: 72–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Forslund, M., and Bjerre, I., 1983, Neurological assessment of preterm infants at term conceptional age in comparison with normal full-term infants, Early Hum. Dev. 8: 195–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fredrickson, W. T., and Brown, J. V., 1980, Gripping and Moro responses: Differences between small-for-gestational age and normal weight term newborn, Early Hum. Dev. 4: 69–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fröding, C.-A., 1960, Acoustic investigation of newborn infants, Acta Oto-Laryngol. 52: 31–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Galant, S., 1917, Der Rückgratreflex, (Ein neuer Reflex im Säuglingsalter), Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der anderen Reflexvorgänge bei den Säuglingen, Diss, Basel.Google Scholar
  47. Gesell, A., 1938, The tonic neck reflex in the human infant, J. Pediatr, 13: 445–464.Google Scholar
  48. Gesell, A., 1952, Infant Development, The Embryology of Early Human Behavior, Harper and Row, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Gesell, A., and Amatruda, C. S., 1967, Developmental Diagnosis, Normal and Abnormal Child Development, 2nd ed., Harper and Row, New York.Google Scholar
  50. Graziani, L. J., Weitzman, E. D., and Velasco, M. S. A., 1968, Neurologic maturation and auditory evoked responses in low birth weight infants, Pediatrics 41: 483–494.Google Scholar
  51. Griffiths, R., 1964, The Abilities of Babies, A Study in Mental Measurement, University of London Press, London.Google Scholar
  52. Hackelöer, B.-J., and Hansmann, M., 1976, Ultraschalldiagnostik in der Frühschwangerschaft, Gynaekologe 9: 108–122.Google Scholar
  53. Hagberg, B., 1979, Epidemiological and preventive aspects of cerebral palsy and severe mental retardation in Sweden, Eur. J. Pediatr. 130: 71–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hagberg, B., Hagberg, G., and Olow, I., 1982, Gains and hazards of intensive neonatal care: An analysis from Swedish cerebral palsy epidemiology, Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 24: 13–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Haller, U., Rüttgers, H., Wille, F., Heinrich, D., Müller, P., and Kubli, F., 1973, Aktive Kindsbewegungen im schnellen Ultraschall-B-Bild, Gynaekol. Rdsch. 13 (Suppl. 1): 118–119.Google Scholar
  56. Hansmann, M., 1974, Kritische Bewertung der Leistungsfähigkeit der Ultraschalldiagnostik in der Geburtshilfe heute, Gynaekologe 7: 26–35.Google Scholar
  57. Hansmann, M., 1976, Ultraschall-Biometrie im II. und III. Trimester der Schwangerschaft, Gynaekologe 9: 133–155.Google Scholar
  58. Hansmann, M., Schuhmacher, H., Foebus, J., and Voigt, U., 1979, Ultraschallbiometrie der fetalen Scheitelsteißlänge in der ersten Schwangerschaftshälfte, Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 39: 656–666.Google Scholar
  59. Harnack, G.-A., and Oster, H., 1958, Quantitative Reifebestimmung von Frühgeborenen, Monatsschr. Kinderheilkd. 106: 324–328.Google Scholar
  60. Henner, H., Haller, U., Wolf-Zimper, O,. Lorenz, W. J., Bader, R., Müller, B., and Kubli, F., 1975, Quantification of Fetal Movement in Normal and Pathologic Pregnancy, Excerpta Medica International Congress Series, No. 363, pp. 316–319, Excerpta Medica. Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  61. Hosemann, H., 1949, Schwangerschaftsdauer und Neugeborenengewicht, Arch. Gynaekol. 176: 109–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Howard, J., Parmelee, A. H., Kopp, C. B., and Littman, B., 1976, A neurologic comparison of pre-term and full-term infants at term conceptional age, J. Pediatr. 88: 995–1002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Humphrey, T., 1964, Some correlations between the appearance of human fetal reflexes and the development of the nervous system, Prog. Brain Res. 4: 93–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Illingworth, R. S., 1967, The Development of the Infant and Young Child, Normal and Abnormal, 3rd ed., E. and S. Livingstone, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  65. Joppich, G., and Schulte, F. J., 1968, Neurologie des Neugeborenen, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Koenigsberger, R. M., 1966, Judgement of fetal age. I. Neurologic evaluation, Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 13: 823–833.Google Scholar
  67. Kussmaul, A., 1859, Untersuchungen über das Seelenleben des neugeborenen Menschen, Verlag Franz Pietzcker, Tübingen.Google Scholar
  68. Langreder, W., 1958, Die geburtshilflich bedeutsame Motorik des Neugeborenen, Kinderärztl. Prax. 26: 559–560.Google Scholar
  69. Langreder, W., 1958, Die geburtshilflich bedeutsame Motorik des Neugeborenen, Kinderärztl. Prax. 26: 559–560.Google Scholar
  70. Larroche, J.-C., 1981, The marginal layer in the neocortex of a 7-week-old human embryo. A light and electron microscopic study, Anat. Embryo!. 162: 301–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Larroche, J.-C., and Houcine, O., 1982, Le néo-cortex chez l’embryon et le foetus humain. Apport du microscope électronique et du Golgi, Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 22: 163–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Larroche, J.-C., Privat, A., and Jardin, L., 1981, Some fine structures of the human fetal brain, in: Physiological and Biochemical Basis for Perinatal Medicine ( M. Monset-Couchard and A. Minkowski, eds.), pp. 350–358, S. Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  73. Latis, G. O., Simionato, L., and Ferraris, G., 1981, Clinical assessment of gestational age in the newborn infant. Comparison of two methods, Early Hum. Dev. 5: 29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Leijon, I., Finnström, O., Nilsson, B., and Rydén, G., 1980, Neurology and behaviour of growth-retarded neonates. Relation to biochemical placental function tests in late pregnancy, Early Hum. Dev. 4: 257–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lenard, H.-G., Bernuth, H. von, and Prechtl, H. F. R., 1968, Reflexes and their relationship to behavioral state in the newborn, Acta Paediatr. Scand. 57: 177–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lubchenco, L. O., 1976, The High Risk Infant, W. B. Saunders, Philadephia.Google Scholar
  77. Lubchenco, L. O., Hansman, C., Dressler, M., and Boyd, E., 1963, Intrauterine growth as estimated from live born birth-weight data at 24 to 42 weeks of gestation, Pediatrics 32: 793–800.Google Scholar
  78. Magnus, R., 1924, Körperstellung, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Magnus, R., and de Kleijn, A., 1912, Die Abhängigkeit des Tonus der Extremitätenmuskulatur von der Kopfstellung, Pfluegers Arch. Ges. Physiol. 145: 455–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Manning, F. A., Baskett, T. F., Morrison, I., and Lange, I., 1981, Fetal biophysical profile scoring: A prospective study in 1,184 high-risk patients, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 140: 289–294.Google Scholar
  81. McGraw, M. B., 1937, The Moro reflex, Am. J. Dis. Child. 54: 240–251.Google Scholar
  82. McKeown, T., and Gibson, J. R., 1951, Observations on all births (23,970) in Birmingham 1947. IV. Premature birth, Br. Med. J. 2: 513–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Meitinger, C., Vlasch, V., and Weinmann, H. M., 1969, Neurologische Untersuchungen bei Frühgeborenen, Munch. Med. Wochenschr. 20: 1158–1168.Google Scholar
  84. Michaelis, R., 1970, Risikofaktoren, neonatale Adaption und motorische Automatismen bei untergewichtigen Neugeborenen, Fortschr. Med. 88: 525–528.Google Scholar
  85. Michaelis, R., and Hege, U., 1982, Welche spastischen zerebralen Paresen könnten pränatal bedingt sein?, Paediatr. Fortbildungskurse Prax. 53: 63–69.Google Scholar
  86. Michaelis, R., Schulte, R. J., and Nolte, R., 1970, Motor behavior of small for gestational age newborn infants, J. Pediatr. 76: 208–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Michaelis, R., Nolte, K., and Sonntag, I., 1975, Der Muskeltonus Frühgeborener im Vergleich zum Muskeltonus reifer Neugeborener, presented at the Congress of South German pediatricians in Ulm.Google Scholar
  88. Michaelis, R., Dopfer, R., Gerbig, W., Dopfer-Feller, P., and Rohr, M., 1979, I. Die Erfassung obstetrischer und postnataler Risikofaktoren durch eine Liste optimaler Bedingungen, Monatsschr. Kinderheilkd. 127: 149–155.Google Scholar
  89. Milani-Comparetti, A., 1981, The neurophysiologic and clinical implications of studies on fetal motor behavior, Semin. Perinatol. 5: 183–189.Google Scholar
  90. Minkowski, A., 1966, Development of the nervous system in early life. I. Introduction, in: Human Development ( F. Falkner, ed.), pp. 254–257, W. B. Saunders, Philadephia.Google Scholar
  91. Minkowski, M., 1921, Sur les mouvements, les réflexes et les réactions musculaires du foetus humain de 2 à 5 mois et leurs rélations avec le système nerveux foetal, Rev. Neurot 37:1105–1118; 1235–1250.Google Scholar
  92. Minkowski, M., 1924. Zum gegenwärtigen Stand der Lehre von den Reflexen in entwicklungsgeschichtlicher und anatomisch-physiologischer Beziehung, Schweiz. Arch. Neurot. Psychiatr. 15: 239–259.Google Scholar
  93. Moro, E., 1918, Das erste Trimenon, Muench. Med. Wochenschr. 65: 1147–1150.Google Scholar
  94. Nesbitt, R. E. L., 1966, Perinatal development, in: Human Development ( F. Falkner, ed.), pp. 123–149, W. B. Saunders Company, Philadephia.Google Scholar
  95. Nie, N. H., and Hull, C. H., 1983, SPSS 8, Statistik-Programm-System für die Sozialwissenschaften, Eine Beschreibung der Programmversionen 8 und 9 (P. Beutel, H. Küffner, and W. Schubö, eds.), 4. Aufl., Fischer, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  96. Nie, N. H., Hull, C. H., Jenkins, J. G., Steinberger, K., and Bent, D. H., 1975, SPSS, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  97. Nijhuis, J. G., Prechtl, H. F. R., Martin, C. B., Jr., and Bots, R. S. G. M., 1982, Are there behavioural states in the human fetus?, Early Hum. Dev. 6: 177–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Northern, J. L., and Downs, M. P., 1978, Hearing in Children, 2nd ed. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Maryland.Google Scholar
  99. Okado, N.,. 1980, Development of the human cervical spinal cord with reference to synapse formation in the motor nucleus, J. Comp. Neurol. 191: 495–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Okado, N., Kakimi, S, and Kojima, T., 1979, Synaptogenesis in the cervical cord of the human embryo: Sequence of synapse formation in a spinal reflex pathway, J. Comp. Neurol. 184: 491–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ounsted, M. K., Chalmers, C. A., and Yudkin, P. L., 1978, Clinical assessment of gestational age at birth: The effects of sex, birthweight, and weight for length for gestation, Early Hum. Dev. 2: 73–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Paine, R. S., 1960, Neurologic examination of infants and children, Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 7: 471–510.Google Scholar
  103. Palmer, P. G., Dubowitz, L. M. S., Verghote, M., and Dubowitz, V., 1982, Neurological and neurobehavioural differences between preterm infants at term and full-term newborn infants, Neuropediatrics 13:183–189. Paludetto, R., Mansi, G., Rinaldi, P., De Luca, T., Cor-chia, C., De Curtis, M., and Andolfi, M., 1982, Behaviour of preterm newborns reaching term without any serious disorder, Early Hum. Dev. 6: 357–363.Google Scholar
  104. Pape, K. E., and Wigglesworth, J. S., 1979, Haemorrhage, Ischaemia and the Perinatal Brain, Clin. Dev. Med., 6970: 1–196.Google Scholar
  105. Papile, L.-A., Burstein, J., Burstein, R., and Koffler, H., 1978, Incidence and evolution of subependymal and intraventricular hemorrhage: A study of infants with birth weights less than 1,500 gm, J. Pediatr. 92: 529–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Parmelee, A. H., 1964, A critical evaluation of the Moro reflex, Pediatrics 33: 773–788.Google Scholar
  107. Parmelee, A. H., and Schulte, F. J., 1970, Developmental testing of pre-term and small-for-date infants, Pediatrics 45: 21–28.Google Scholar
  108. Patrick, J., Campbell, K., Carmichael, L., Natale, R., and Richardson, B., 1982, Patterns of gross fetal body movements over 24-hour observation intervals during the last 10 weeks of pregnancy, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 142: 363–371.Google Scholar
  109. Peiper, A., 1964, Die Eigenart der kindlichen Hirntätigkeit, 3rd ed., Thieme, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  110. Polani, P. E., and MacKeith, D. M., 1960, Foreword, in: The Neurological Examination of the Infant (André-Thomas, Y. Chesni, and S. Saint-Anne Dargassies, eds.), pp. 2–8, Little Club Clinics in Developmental Medicine, No. 1.Google Scholar
  111. Prechtl, H. F. R., 1958, The directed head turning response and allied movements of the human baby, Behaviour 13: 212–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Prechtl, H. F. R., 1965, Prognostic value of neurological signs in the newborn infant, Proc. R. Soc. Med. 58: 1–4.Google Scholar
  113. Prechtl, H. F. R., 1968, Neurological findings in newborn infants after pre-and paranatal complications, in: Aspects of Praematurity and Dysmaturity (J. H. P. Jonxis, H. K. A. Visser, and J. A. Troelstra, eds.), pp. 303–321, Nutricia Symposium, Groningen, 1967, H. E. Stenfert N. V., Kroese Leiden.Google Scholar
  114. Prechtl, H. F. R., 1970, Hazards of oversimplification, Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 12: 522–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Prechtl, H. F. R., 1972, Strategy and validity of early detection of neurological dysfunction, in: Mental Retardation, Prenatal Diagnosis and Infant Assessment ( C. P. Douglas and K. S. Holt, eds.), pp. 41–46, Butterworths, London.Google Scholar
  116. Prechtl, H. F. R., 1973, Das leicht hirngeschädigte Kind. Theoretische Überlegungen zu einem praktischen Problem,pp. 282–305, Van Loghum Slaterus Deventer.Google Scholar
  117. Prechtl, H. F. R., 1974, The behavioural states of the newborn infant (A review), Brain Res. 76: 185–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Prechtl, H. F. R., 1977, The Neurological Examination of the Full-Term Newborn Infant, 2nd ed., Clin. Dev. Med., 63:1–68.Google Scholar
  119. Prechtl, H. F. R., 1983a, Entwicklungsneurologie vor und nach der Geburt, presented at the Ninth Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Neuropädiatrie, Tübingen.Google Scholar
  120. Prechtl, H. F. R., 1983b, Towards a prenatal neurology, in: Dilemmas in Gestosis. Controversies in Etiology, Pathology, Therapy. International Symposium, Vienna 1982 ( H. Janisch and E. Reinold, eds.), pp. 214–217, Thieme, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  121. Prechtl, H. F. R., and Beintema, D. J., 1964, The Neurological Examination of the Full-Term Newborn Infant, Little Club Clinics in Developmental Medicine, No. 12. Heinemann Medical, London.Google Scholar
  122. Prechtl, H. F. R., and Beintema, D. J., 1976, Die neurologische Untersuchung des reifen Neugeborenen, 74 pp., 2nd ed., Thieme, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  123. Prechtl, H. F. R., and Knol, A. R., 1958, Der Einfluss der Beckenendlage auf die Fusssohlenreflexe beim neugeborenen Kind, Arch. Psychiatr. Nervenkr. 196: 542–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Prechtl, H. F. R., Fargel, J. W., Weinmann, H. M., and Bakker, H. H., 1975, Development of motor function and body posture in pre-term infants, in: Aspects of Neural Plasticity/Plasticité nerveuse ( F. Vital-Durand and M. Jeannerod, eds.), Vol. 43, pp. 55–66, INSERM, Paris.Google Scholar
  125. Prechtl, H. F. R., Fargel, J. W., Weinmann, H. M., and Bakker, H. H., 1979, Postures, motility and respiration of low-risk pre-term infants, Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 21: 3–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Pschyrembel, W., and Dudenhausen, J. W., 1972, Grundriss der Perinatalmedizin,de Gruyter, Berlin.Google Scholar
  127. Rademaker, G. G. J., 1926, Die Bedeutung der Roten Kerne und des übrigen Mittelhirns für Muskeltonus, Körperstellung und Labyrinthreflexe, Monogr. Gesamtgeb. Neurol. Psychiatr. 44: 344 pp.Google Scholar
  128. Reinold, E., 1971, Beobachtung fetaler Aktivität in der ersten Hälfte der Gravidität mit dem Ultraschall, Paediatr. Paedol. 6: 274–279.Google Scholar
  129. Reinold, E., 1976, Ultrasonics in early pregnancy. Diagnostic scanning and fetal motor activity, Contrib. Gynecol. Obstet. 1: 1–148.Google Scholar
  130. Robinson, H. P., 1973, Sonar measurement of fetal crown-rump length as means of assessing maturity in first trimester of pregnancy, Br. Med. J. 4: 28–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Robinson, H. P., and Fleming, J. E. E., 1975, A critical evaluation of sonar “crown-rump length” measurements, Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 82: 702–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Robinson, R. J., 1966, Assessment of gestational age by neurological examination, Arch. Dis. Child. 41: 437–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Saint-Anne Dargassies, S., 1954, Méthode d’examen neurologique du nouveau-né, Etud. Néo-Natales 3: 101–123.Google Scholar
  134. Saint-Anne Dargassies, S., 1955, La maturation neurolo- gique des prématurés, Etud. Néo-Natales 4: 71–116.Google Scholar
  135. Saint-Anne Dargassies, S., 1966, Neurological maturation of the premature infant of 28 to 41 weeks’ gestational age, in: Human Development ( F. Falkner, ed.), pp. 306–325, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  136. Saint-Anne Dargassies, S., 1970, Détermination neurologique de l’âge foetal néonatal (tableaux-Schéma évo-lutif-grille d’examen maturatif), J. Paris. Pediatr. 1: 310–326.Google Scholar
  137. Saint-Anne Dargassies, S., 1974, Le développement neurologique du nouveau-né à terme et prématuré, Masson, Paris. (English translation 1977), Neurological Development in the Full-term and Premature Neonate, Elsevier North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  138. Saint-Anne Dargassies, S., 1977, Long-term neurological follow-up study of 286 truly premature infants. I. Neurological sequelae, Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 19: 462–478.Google Scholar
  139. Schaltenbrand, G., 1925, Normale Bewegungs-und Lagereaktionen bei Kindern, Dtsch. Z. Nervenheilkd. 87: 23–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Schmidt, W., Garoff, L., Heberling, D., Zaloumis, M., Cseh, I., Haller, U., and Kubli, F., 1981, Überwachung der fetalen Bewegungsaktivität mit Real-Time-Ultraschall und deren Bedeutung für den Schwangerschaftsverlauf, Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 41: 601–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Schröder, R., 1977, Longitudinalstudie über Wachstum und Entwicklung von früh-und reifgeborenen Kindern von der Geburt bis zum 6. Lebensjahr. Ergebnisse der bisherigen Auswertung der psychologischen Untersuchungsbefunde, Forschungsbericht des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, Westdeutscher Verlag GmbH, Opladen.Google Scholar
  142. Schulte, F. J., 1968, Gestation. Wachstum und Hirnentwicklung, in: Fortschritte der Pädologie ( F. Linneweh, ed.), Vol. II, pp. 46–64, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Schulte, F. J., 1970a, Sinn und Unsinn der Altersschätzung von Neugeborenen aufgrund neurologischer Kriterien, Perinat. Med. 2: 261–262.Google Scholar
  144. Schulte, F. J., 1970b, Neonatal brain mechanisms and the development of motor behavior, in: Physiology of the Perinatal Period ( U. Stave, ed.), Vol. 2, pp. 797–841, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  145. Schulte, F. J., 1971, Das motorische Verhalten von Früh-und Neugeborenen, in: Handbuch der Kinderheilkunde (H. Opitz and F. Schmid, eds.), I/1, pp. 108–124. Springer Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  146. Schulte, F. J., 1973, Besonderheiten bei der neurologischen Untersuchung und Beurteilung von Neugeborenen und Säuglingen, in: Neuropädiatrie (A. Matthes and R. Kruse, eds.), pp. 169–191, Thieme, Stuttgart. Schulte, F. J., 1974, The neurological development of the neonate, in: Scientific Foundations of Paediatrics ( J. A. Davis and J. Dobbing, eds.), pp. 587–615, Heinemann Medical, London.Google Scholar
  147. Schulte, F. J., and Schwenzel, W., 1965, Motor control and muscle tone in the newborn period. Electromyographic studies, Biol. Neonate 8: 198–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Schulte, F. J., Michaelis, R., Linke, I., and Nolte, R., 1968a, Motor nerve conduction velocity in term, pre-term and small-for-dates newborn infants, Pediatrics 42: 17–26.Google Scholar
  149. Schulte, F. J., Linke, I., and Nolte, R., 1968b. Electromyographic evaluation of the Moro reflex in preterm, term, and small-for-dates newborn infants, Dev. Psychobiol. 1: 41–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Schulte, F. J., Albert, G., and Michaelis, R., 1969, Gestationsalter und Nervenleitgeschwindigkeit bei normalen und abnormen Neugeborenen, Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 94: 599–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Schulte, F. J., Schrempf, G., and Hinze, G., 1971, Maternal toxemia, fetal malnutrition, and motor behavior of the newborn, Pediatrics 48: 871–882.Google Scholar
  152. Sidman, R. L, and Rakic, P., 1973, Neuronal migration, with special reference to developing human brain: A review, Brain Res. 62: 1–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Siegel, S., 1956, Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, International Student Edition, McGraw-Hill, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  154. Stirnimann, F., 1938, Das Kriech-und Schreit-phaenomen der Neugeborenen, Schweiz, Med. Wochenschr. 19: 1374–1476.Google Scholar
  155. Stirnimann, F., 1940, Psychologie des neugeborenen Kindes, Kindler Verlag GmbH, Munich.Google Scholar
  156. Streeter, G. L., 1920, Weight, sitting height, head size, foot length, and menstrual age of the human embryo, Contrib. Embryol. Carneg. Inst. 11: 143–170.Google Scholar
  157. Terman, M. L., and Merrill, M. A., 1965, Stanford-Binet Intelligenz-Test, Deutsche Bearbeitung von H. R. Lückert, Verlag für Psychologie C. J. Hogrefe, Göttingen.Google Scholar
  158. Timor-Tritsch, I., Zador, I., Hertz, R. H., and Rosen, M. G., 1976, Classification of human fetal movement, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 126: 70–77.Google Scholar
  159. Touwen, B. C. L., Huisjes, H. J., Jurgens-v.d.Zee, A.D., Bierman-van Eendenburg, M. E. C., Smrkovsky, M., and Olinga, A. A., 1980, Obstetrical condition and neonatal neurological morbidity. An analysis with the help of the optimality concept, Early Hum. Dev. 4: 207–228.Google Scholar
  160. Vecchietti, G., and Borruto, F., 1982, Fetal behavior, in: Fetal Ultrasonography: The Secret Prenatal Life ( F. Borruto, M. Hansmann, and J. W. Wladimiroff, eds.), pp. 25–37, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  161. Vries, H. J. I. P., Visser, G. H. A., and Prechtl, H. F. R., 1982, The emergence of fetal behaviour. I. Qualitative aspects, Early Hum. Dev. 7: 301–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Weber, H. P., Kowalewski, S., Gilje, A., Mollering, M., Schnaufer, I., and Fink, H., 1976, Unterschiedliche Calorienzufuhr bei 75 “low birth weights”: Einfluss auf Gewichtszunahme, Serumeiweiss, Blutzucker und Serumbilirubin, Eur. J. Pediatr. 122: 207–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Wolff, L. V., 1930, The response to plantar stimulation in infancy, Am. J. Dis. Child. 39: 1176–1185.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ingeborg Brandt
    • 1
  1. 1.University Children’s HospitalUniversity of BonnBonn 1Federal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations