Skull, Jaw, and Teeth Growth Patterns

  • Patrick G. Sullivan


The growth of the human skull has been recorded in many ways over the centuries, ranging from the drawings found in the tombs of ancient Egypt to the computer-drawn plots of modern times. Although both the advent of radiography and the data-processing power of computer technology have permitted a much improved understanding of the overall patterns of skull growth, the stimuli and control mechanisms that govern the growth of an individual are still subject to debate and controversy.


Orthodontic Treatment Facial Growth Dental Arch Cranial Vault Epiphyseal Cartilage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, J. W., 1940, Correction of errors in cephalometric roentgenograms, Angle Orthod. 10: 3–13.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, R. B., The effects on both position and maxillo facial vertical growth during treatment of scoliosis with the Milwaukee brace, Am. J. Orthod. 52: 161–189.Google Scholar
  3. Avis, V., 1961, The significance of the angle of the mandible: An experimental and comparative study, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 19: 55–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bassett, C. A. L., 1972, Biophysical properties affecting bone structure, in: The Biochemistry and Physiology of Bone, ( G. H. Boume, ed.), Vol. III pp. 1–76, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Bassett, C. A. L, Pawluk, R. J., and Becker, R. O., 1964, Effects of electric currents on bone in vivo, Nature (London) 202: 652–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baume, L. J., 1961, The postnatal growth activity of the nasal cartilage septum, Helv. Odontol. Acta. 47: 88 1901.Google Scholar
  7. Bjork, A., 1947, The face in profile, Sven. Tandlaek. Tidskr. 40: 56.Google Scholar
  8. Bjork, A., 1951, The significance of growth changes in facial pattern and their relationship to changes in occlusion, Dent. Rec. 7: 197–208.Google Scholar
  9. Bjork, A., 1955, Facial growth in man, studies with the aid of metallic implants, Acta. OdontoL Scand. 13: 9–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bjork, A., 1963, Variations in the growth pattern of the human mandible: Longitudinal radiographic study by the implant method, J. Dent. Res. 42: 400–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bjork, A., 1964, Sutural growth of the upper face studied by the implant method, Trans. Eur. Orthod. Soc. 49: 4965.Google Scholar
  12. Bjork, A., and Skeiller, V., 1983, Normal and abnormal growth of the mandible. A synthesis of longitudinal cephalometric implant studies over a period of 25 years, Eur. J. Orthod. 5: 1–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bjork, A., and Solow, B., 1962, Measurements on radiographs, J. Dent. Res. 41: 672–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brash, J. C., 1956, The Aetiology of Irregularity and Malocclusion of the Teeth,Part 1, Dental Board of U.K.Google Scholar
  15. Broadbent, B. H., Sr., Broadbent, B. H., Jr., and Golden, W. H., 1975, Bolton Standards of Dentofacial Developmental Growth, C. V. Mosby, St. Louis, Missouri.Google Scholar
  16. Broadbent, H., 1931, A new X-ray technique and its application to orthodontics, Angle Orthod. 1: 45–66Google Scholar
  17. Brodie, A. G., 1953, Late growth changes in the human face, Angle Orthod. 23: 146–157.Google Scholar
  18. Burke, P., 1983, Serial stereophotogrammetric measurement of the soft tissues of the face, Br. Dent. J. 155: 373–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Burke P., and Beard L. F. H., 1967, Stereophotogrammetry of the face, Am. J. Orthod. 53: 769–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. D’Arcy Thompson, W., 1917, On Growth and Form, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  21. Delattre, A., and Fenart, R., 1958, La méthode vestibulaire appliqué à l’étude du crane. Son champ d’application, Z. Morphol. Anat. 1: 90–114.Google Scholar
  22. Downs, W. B., 1948, Variations in facial relationships, their significance in treatment and prognosis, Am. J. Orthod. 34: 812–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dudas, M., and Sassouni, V., 1963. The hereditary components of mandibular growth, a longitudinal twin study, Angle Orthod. 43: 314–323.Google Scholar
  24. Enlow, D. H., 1966, A morphogenetic analysis of facial growth, Am. J. Orthod. 52: 283–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Enlow, D. H., 1975, Handbook of Facial Growth, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  26. Frost, H. M., 1964, The Laws of Bone Structure, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  27. Giannelly, A. A., and Moorrees, C. F. A., 1965, Condylectomy in the rat, Arch. Oral BioL 10: 101–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Goldstein, M. S., 1936, Changes in dimension and form of the face and head with age, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 22: 37–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Graber, T., Chung, D., and Aoba, J., 1967, Dentofacial orthopedics versus orthodontics, J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 75: 1145–1166.Google Scholar
  30. Grange, R. J., and Johnston, L. E., 1974, The septo-premaxillary attachment and mid-facial growth, Am. J. Orthod. 66: 71–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gregory, W. K., 1927, The palaeomorphology of the human head: Ten structural stages from fish to man: Part 1. The skull in norma lateralis, Q. J. BioL 2: 267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Haas, A. J., 1961, Rapid expansion of the maxillary dental arch and nasal cavity by opening the mid-palatal suture, Angle Orthod. 31: 73–90.Google Scholar
  33. Harris, W. H., 1960, A microscopic method of determining rates of bone growth, Nature (London) 188: 1038–1039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hillesund, E., Fjeld, D., and Zachrisson, B. U., 1978, Reliability of soft tissue profile in cephalometrics, Am. J. Orthod. 74: 537–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Holdaway, R. A., 1983, A soft-tissue cephalometric analysis and its use in orthodontic treatment planning, Am. J. Orthod. 84: 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Humphrey, G. M., 1863, Results of experiments on the growth of the jaws, Br. J. Dent. Sei. 6: 548–550.Google Scholar
  37. Hunter, J., 1798, Experiments and observations on the growth of bones, in: Hunter’s Works, 1837 ( D. F. Palmers, Ed.), Longman, London.Google Scholar
  38. Hunter, W. S., 1965, Study of inheritance of craniofacial characteristics as seen in lateral cephalograms of 72 like-sexed cases, Trans. Eur. Orthod. Soc. 41: 59–69.Google Scholar
  39. Johnston, L. E., 1975, A simplified approach to prediction, Am. J. Orthod. 67: 253–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Klein, P. L., 1957, An evaluation of cervical traction on the maxilla and the upper first permanent molar, Angle Orthod. 27: 61.Google Scholar
  41. Koski, K., 1973, Variability of the facial skeleton: An exercise in roentgen-cephalometry, Am. J. Orthod. 64: 188–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Koski, K., and Ronning, 0., 1965, Growth potential of transplanted components of the mandibular ramus of the rat III, Suom. Hammaslaak Seur Toim 61: 292–297.Google Scholar
  43. Koski, K., and Ronning, O., 1970, Growth potential in intracerebrally transplanted cranial base synchondrosis in the rat, Arch. Oral Biol. 15: 1107–1108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Krogman, W. M., and Sassouni, V., 1957, A Syllabus in Roentgenographic Cephalometry, Philadelphia Center for Research in Child Growth, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  45. Latham, R. A., 1968, The sliding of cranial bones at sutural surfaces during growth, J. Anat. 102: 593.Google Scholar
  46. Latham, R. A., 1969, The septopremaxillary ligament and maxillary development, J. Anat. 104: 584–586.Google Scholar
  47. Logan, W. R., 1962, The effect of the Milwaukee brace on the developing dentition, Dent. Pract. 12: 447–452.Google Scholar
  48. Lundstrum, A., 1954, The importance of genetic and non-genetic factors in the facial skeleton studied in 100 pairs of twins, Trans. Eur. Orthod. Soc. 30: 92–106.Google Scholar
  49. Lynsholm, E., 1931, Apparatus and technique for roent- gen examination of the skull, Acta Radio!. Suppl. 12.Google Scholar
  50. McNamara, J. A., and Carlson, D. S., 1979, Quantitative analysis of temporomandibular joint adaptation to protrusive function, Am. J. Orthod. 76: 593–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McNamara, J. A., Hinton, R. J., and Hoffman, D. L., 1982, Histologic analysis of temporomandibular joint adaptation to protrusive function in young adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), Am. J. Orthod. 82: 288–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mitchell, D. L., Jordan, J. F., and Ricketts, R. M., 1975, Facial growth with metallic implants in mandibular growth prediction, Am. J. Orthod. 68: 655–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Moorrees, C. F. A., and Yem, P. K.-J., 1955, An analysis of changes in the dentofacial skeleton following orthodontic treatment, Am. J. Orthod. 41: 526–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Moorrees, C. F. A., and Kean, M. R., 1958, Natural head position a basic consideration in the interpretation of cephalometric radiographs, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 16: 213–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Moorrees, C. F. A., Fanning, E. A., and Hunt, E. E., 1963a, Age variation of formation stages for ten permanent teeth, J. Dent. Res. 42: 1490–1502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Moorrees, C. F. A., Fanning, E. A., and Hunt, E. E., 1963b, Formation and resorbtion of three deciduous teeth in children, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 21: 205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Moss, M. L., 1954, The growth of the calvaria in the rat, Am. J. Anat. 94: 333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Moss, M. L., 1968, The primacy of functional matrices in orofacial growth, Dent. Pract. Dent. Rec. 19: 65–73.Google Scholar
  59. Moss, M. L., and Rankow, R. M., 1968, The role of the functional matrix in mandibular growth, Angle Orthod. 39: 95–103.Google Scholar
  60. Moss, M. L., and Salentijn, L., 1970, The logarithmic growth of the human mandible, Acta Anat. 77: 341–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Moss, M. L., Bromberg, B. E., Song, I. C., and Eisenman, G., 1968, The passive role of nasal septal cartilage in mid-facial growth, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 41: 536–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Moss, M. L., Salentijn, L., and Ostreicher, H. P., 1974, The logarithmic properties of active and passive mandibular growth, Am. J. Orthod. 66: 645–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Moss, M. L., Skalak, R., Shinoznka, M., Patel, H., MossSalentijn, L., Vilmann, H., and Melita, P., 1983, Statistical testing of an allometric centered model of craniofacial growth, Am. J. Orthod. 83: 5–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Petrovic, A., Stutzman, J., and Gasson, N., 1982, The final length of the mandible: Is it generally predetermined?, in: Craniofacial Biology, Monograph No. 10, Craniofacial Growth Series, Ann Arbor, 1981 ( D. S. Carlson, ed.), pp. 105–126, Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  65. Pritchard, J. J., Scott, J. H., and Girgis, F. G., 1956, The structure of cranial and facial sutures, J. Anat. 90: 7386.Google Scholar
  66. Reitan, K., 1951, The initial tissue reaction incident to orthodontic tooth movement as related to the influence of function, Acta. Odontol. Scand. Suppl. 6.Google Scholar
  67. Ricketts, R. M., 1973, New findings and concepts emerging from the clinical use of the computer, Trans. Eur. Orthod. Soc. 1973: 507–515.Google Scholar
  68. Ricketts, R. M., Bench, R. W., Hilgers, J. I., and Schulhof, A. B., 1972, An overview of computerized cephalometrics, Am. J. Orthod. 61: 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rock, W. P., and Baker, R., 1972, The effect of the Milwaukee brace upon dentofacial growth, Angle Orthod. 42: 96–102.Google Scholar
  70. Rushton, M. A., 1944, Growth at the mandibular condyle in relation to some deformities, Br. Dent. J. 76: 5768.Google Scholar
  71. Salzmann, J. A., 1966, Practice of Orthodontics, Vol. 1, J. B. Lippincott, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  72. Sarnat, B. G., 1963, Postnatal growth of the upper face: Some experimental considerations, Angle Orthod. 33: 139–161.Google Scholar
  73. Sarnat, B. B., and Wexler, M. R., 1966, Growth of the face and jaws after resection of the septal cartilage in the rabbit, Am. J. Anat. 118: 755–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sarnat, B. G., and Wexler, M. R., 1967, Rabbit snout growth after resection of central linear segments of nasal septal cartilage, Acta. Oto-Laryngol. 63: 467–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Savara, B. S., 1972, The role of computers in dentofacial research and the development of diagnostic aids, Am. J Orthod. 61: 231–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Scott, J. H., 1954, The growth of the human face, Proc. R. Soc. Med. (London) 47: 91.Google Scholar
  77. Scott, J. H., 1956, Growth at facial sutures, Am. J. Orthod. 42: 381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Scott, J. H., 1967, Dento-facial Development and Growth, Pergamon, London.Google Scholar
  79. Sillman, J. H., 1964, Dimensional changes of the dental arches: Longitudinal study from birth to 25 years, Am. J. Orthod. 50: 824–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Steiner, C. C., 1953, Cephalometrics for you and me, Am. J. Orthod. 39: 729–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Steiner, C. C., 1959, Cephalometrics in clinical practice, Angle Orthod. 29: 8–29.Google Scholar
  82. Steiner, C. C., 1960, The use of cephalometrics as an aid to planning and assessing orthodontic treatment, Am. J Orthod. 46: 721–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Stenstrom, S. J., and Thilander, B. L., 1972, Effects of nasal septal cartilage resections on young guinea pigs, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 45: 160–170.Google Scholar
  84. Sullivan, P. G., 1972, A method for the study of jaw growth using a computer-based three-dimensional recording technique, J. Anat. 112: 457–470.Google Scholar
  85. Suzuki, H. K., and Matthews, A., 1966, Two colour fluorescent labelling of mineralising tissues with tetracy-dine and 2,4-bis(N,N’-di-(carboxymethyl)aminomethyl) fluorescein, Stain Technol. 41: 57–60.Google Scholar
  86. Tanner, J. M., 1951, Some notes on the reporting of growth data, Hum. Biol. 23: 93–159.Google Scholar
  87. Tedesco, L. A., Albino, J. E., Cunat, J. J., Green, L. J., Lewis, E. A., and Slakter, M. J., 1983, A dental-facial attractiveness scale, Am. J. Ortho. 83: 38–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tulley, W. J., and Campbell, A. C., 1975, A Manual of Practical Orthodontics, 3rd ed., Wright and Sons, Bristol, England.Google Scholar
  89. Voorhies, J. M., and Adams, J. W., 1951, Polygonic interpretation of cephalometric findings, Angle Orthod. 21: 194–197.Google Scholar
  90. Walker, G. F., 1972, A new approach to the analysis of craniofacial morphology, Am. J. Orthod. 61: 221–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Washburn, S. L., 1947, The relation of the temporal mus- cle to the form of the skull, Anat. Rec. 99: 239–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Watanabe, M., Laskin, D. M., and Brodie, A., 1957, The effect of antotransplantation on growth of the zygomaticomaxillary suture, Am. J. Anat. 10: 319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Weinmann, J. P., and Sicher, H., 1955, Bone and Bones: Fundamentals of Bone Biology, 2nd ed., Kimpton, London.Google Scholar
  94. Wexler, M. R., and Sarnat, B. G., 1961, Rabbit snout growth: Effect of injury to the spetovomeral region, Arch. Oto-Laryngol. 74: 305–313.Google Scholar
  95. Wylie, W. L., 1947, Assessment of antero-posterior dysplasia, Angle Orthod. 17: 97.Google Scholar
  96. Young, R. W., 1959, The influence of cranial contents on postural growth of the skull of the rat, Am. J. Anat. 103: 383–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick G. Sullivan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Child Dental HealthThe University of SheffieldSheffieldEngland

Personalised recommendations