Advertisement

Multifunctional Conjugated Organic Materials Incorporating Stable Charge States

  • Charles W. Spangler
  • Mingqian He

Abstract

Electroactive materials have been studied extensively for several years due to their unique chemical and photophysical properties. Originally of interest due to the dramatic increases in conductivity when chemically or electrochemically doped,1,2 it has more recently been recognized that these materials are truly multifunctional in nature. In most of these emerging applications, the introduction of stable charge states into a conjugated π-electron sequence seems to play a key role.3 In this paper we will review how well-defined stabilized bipolaronic charge states can be incorporated into both oligomeric and copolymeric conjugation sequences and review their potential application.

Keywords

Charge State Repeat Unit Alkyl Group Substitution Polyene Sequence Bipolaron Formation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    T.J. Skotheim, ed. “Handbook of Conducting Polymers,” Vol. 1 and 2, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York (1986).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    H.G. Kiess, ed. “Conjugated Conducting Polymers,” Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg (1992).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    C.W. Spangler, KO. Havelka, and P.-K. Liu, The formation of charge states in organic molecules, oligomers and polymers for applications in molecular electronics and photonic devices, in. “Molecular Electronic Devices: Science and Technology,” Vol. III, K. Sienicki, ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton (1994).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.I. Kroschwitz, ed. “Electrical and Electronic Properties of Polymers: A State-of-the- Art Compendium,” John Wiley & Sons, New York (1988).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    P.N. Prasad and D.J. Williams, “Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers,” John Wiley & Sons, New York (1991).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    E.G. Nickel, C.W. Spangler, N. Tang, R. Hellwarth, and L. Dalton, Third-order non-linearity in polymer models and composites containing stabilized bipolarons, in. “Organic Materials for Non-Linear Optics III,” G.J. Ashwell and D. Bloor, eds., Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge (1993).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J.H. Burroughes, D.D.C. Bradley, A.R. Brown, R.N. Marks, K. Mackay, RH. Friend, P.L. Burn, and A.B. Holmes, Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers, Nature 347:539 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    C.W. Spangler, LS. Sapochak, and B.D. Gates, Polaron and bipolaron formation in model extended π -electron systems: potential non-linear optics applications, in. “Organic Materials for Non-Linear Optics,” R.A. Hann and D. Bloor, eds., Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge (1989).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    C.W. Spangler and T.J. Hall, Oxidative doping studies of PPV oligomers, Synthet. Met. 44:85(1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    C.W. Spangler and P.-K. Liu, Oxidative doping studies of PTV oligomers, Synthet. Met. 44:259 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    C.W. Spangler, P.-K. Liu, A. Dembek, and K.O. Havelka, Preparation and oxidative doping of α,ω)-dithienyl polyenes, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1 799 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    C.W. Spangler and P.-K. Liu, Preparation and oxidative doping studies of α,ω-dithienyl polyenes stabilized by long chain alkylthio substituents, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans.2 1959 (1992).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C.W. Spangler and M.Q. He, Preparation and oxidative doping studies of bis-thienyl polyenes stabilized by alkyl group substitution, in press, J. Chem. Soc, Perkin Trans. 2 (1995).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    C.W. Spangler, M.Q. He, J. Laquindanum, L.R. Dalton, N. Tang, J.P. Partanen, and R. Hellwarth, Bipolaron formation and nonlinear optical properties in bis-thienyl polyenes, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 328:655 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    N. Tang, J. Partanen, R. Hellwarth, L Laquindanum, L. Dalton, C.W. Spangler, and M.Q. He, Studies of optical nonlinearity in bis-thienyl polyenes, Proc. SPIE 2285:186(1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    G.G. Malliaras, J.K. Herrema, J. Wildeman, R.H. Wieringa, R.E. Gill, S.S. Lampoura, and G. Hadziioannou, Tuning of the photo- and electroluminescence in multi-block copolymers of poly[(silanylene)-thiophenes]s via exciton confinement, Adv. Mater. 5:721 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles W. Spangler
    • 1
  • Mingqian He
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryNorthern Illinois UniversityDeKalbUSA

Personalised recommendations