Multifunctional Conjugated Organic Materials Incorporating Stable Charge States

  • Charles W. Spangler
  • Mingqian He


Electroactive materials have been studied extensively for several years due to their unique chemical and photophysical properties. Originally of interest due to the dramatic increases in conductivity when chemically or electrochemically doped,1,2 it has more recently been recognized that these materials are truly multifunctional in nature. In most of these emerging applications, the introduction of stable charge states into a conjugated π-electron sequence seems to play a key role.3 In this paper we will review how well-defined stabilized bipolaronic charge states can be incorporated into both oligomeric and copolymeric conjugation sequences and review their potential application.


Charge State Repeat Unit Alkyl Group Substitution Polyene Sequence Bipolaron Formation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles W. Spangler
    • 1
  • Mingqian He
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryNorthern Illinois UniversityDeKalbUSA

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