Special Topics in Cryogenics

  • Steven W. Van Sciver
Part of the The International Cryogenics Monograph Series book series (ICMS)

Abstract

In the preceding discussion, the emphasis has been on bulk helium properties and systems operating in the temperature range above 1 K. However, there are numerous other topics in cyrogenics which do not fall in this general context but still have considerable relevance to the general subject of helium cryogenics. In the present chapter, four topics outside the main focus of this book are reviewed. These topics include (1) thermal insulation systems, (2) the behavior of liquid 3He at very low temperatures, (3) helium adsorption, and (4) the practical aspects of magnetic refrigeration. The review of these subjects is not all-inclusive but rather represents a few areas of potential interest to the general subject of low-temperature phenomena important to the useful application of helium cryogenics.

Keywords

Exfoliate Graphite Dilution Refrigerator Heat Leak Superconductive Energy Storage Magnet Magnetic Refrigerator 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    G. K. White, Experimental Techniques in Low Temperature Physics, 3rd ed., Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1979.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    F. E. Hoare, L. C. Jackson, and N. Kurti, Experimental Cryophysics, Butterworths, London, 1961.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    O. V. Lounasmaa, Experimental Principles and Methods Below 1 K, Academic Press, London, 1974.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. B. Scott, Cryogenic Engineering, Princeton Press, Princeton, NJ, 1959.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. F. Barron, Cryogenic Systems, 2nd Ed., Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1985.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. C. Rose-Innes, Low Temperature Techniques, English Universities Press, London, 1973.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    E. H. Kennard, Kinetic Theory of Gases, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1938.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. J. Corrucini, Gaseous Heat Conduction at Low Pressures and Temperatures, Vacuum 7–8, 19 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    E. G. Cravalho, C. L. Tien, and R. P. Caren, Effect of Small Spacings on Radiative Transfer Between Two Dielectrics, Transactions of ASME, paper 67-HT-21 (1967).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. F. Dickson and M. C. Jones, Infrared Spectral Reflectances of Metals at Low Temperatures, Cryogenics - 8, 24 (1968).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    W. Obert, J. R. Coupland, D. P. Hammond, T. Cook, and K. Harwood, Emissivity Measurements of Metallic Surfaces Used in Cryogenics Applications, Adv. Cryog. Eng. 27, 293 (1982).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. Brechna, Superconducting Magnet Systems, Chap. 5, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1973.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    K. D. Timmerhaus, Conductive Heat Transfer, in Heat Transfer at Low Temperatures, W. Frost (Ed.), Chap. 2, Plenum Press, New York, 1975.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    E. M. Leung, R. W. Fast, H. L. Hart, and J. R. Heim, Techniques for Reducing Radiation Heat Transfer Between 77 K and 4.2 K, Adv. Cryog. Eng. 25, 489 (1980).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. H. Kropschot and R. W. Burgess, Perlite for Cryogenic Insulation, Adv. Cryog. Eng. 8, 425 (1963).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    E. R. Lady, Cryogenic Insulation, in Cryogenic Engineering, E. R. Lady (Ed.), Chap. 7, Engineering Summer Conference, University of Michigan, 1965.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Y. M. Eyssa and O. Okasha, Thermodynamic Systemization of Thermal Radiation Shields for a Cryogenic Apparatus, Cryogenics 18, 305 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. A. Hilal and G. E. McIntosh, Cryogenic Design for Large Superconductive Energy Storage Magnets, Adv. Cryog. Eng. 21, 69 (1976).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    W. F. Keller, Helium 3 and Helium 4, Plenum Press, London, 1969.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    L. D. Landau, The Theory of a Fermi Liquid, Sov. Phys. JETP 3, 920 (1957); 5, 101 (1957); 8, 70 (1959).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. Wilks, The Properties of Liquid and Solid Helium, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1967.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    D. M. Lee and R. C. Richardson, Superfluid 3He, in The Physics of Liquid and Solid Helium, Part II, K. H. Bennemann and J. B. Ketterson (Eds.), Chap. 4, Wiley, New York, 1978.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    K. Andres and O. V. Lounasmaa, Recent Progress in Nuclear Cooling, Prog. Low Temp. Phys. 8, 221 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    V. Lounasmaa, The Pursuit of Absolute Zero, Adv. Cryog. Eng. 29, 551 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    I. Pomeranchuk, On the Theory of Liquid 3He, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fir. 20, 919 (1950).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    D. D. Osheroff, R. C. Richardson, and D. M. Lee, Evidence for a New Phase of Solid 3He, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 885 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. C. Wheatly, Three Lectures on the Experimental Properties of Liquid 3He, in The Helium Liquids, J. G. M. Armitage and I. E. Farquar (Eds.), Academic Press, London, 1975.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. C. Wheatly, Superfluid Phases of Helium Three, Phys. Today 29, 32 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    L. Corruccini and D. D. Osheroff, Unusual Magnetic Relaxation in Superfluid 311e, Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 564 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. G. Dash, Films on Solid Surfaces, Academic Press, New York, 1975.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    D. W. Princehouse, High-Resolution Heat Capacity Study of 4He Adsorbed on Bare Copper, J. Low Temp. Phys. 8, 287 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. G. Daunt and E. Lerner, Adsorption of 3He and 4He on Various Substrates Below 30 K, J. Low Temp. Phys. 8, 79 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    W. A. Steele and J. G. Aston, Heats of Adsorption of Hydrogen and Helium on Prepared Surfaces, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 2393 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    A. A. Antoniou, Adsorption of 4He on Graphitized Carbon in the Submonolayer Region Between 2 and 15 K, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 779 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    R. L. Elgin and D. L. Goodstein, Thermodynamic Study of the 4He Monolayer Adsorbed on Grafoil, Phys. Rev. A 9, 2657 (1974).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    J. G. Daunt and C. Z. Rosen, Multilayer Adsorption of 3He and 4He on Zeolite from 4 to 80 K, J. Low Temp. Phys. 3, 89 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    M. Bretz, J. G. Dash, D. C. Hickernell, E. O. McLean, and O. E. Vilches, Phases of 3He and ‘He Monolayer Films Adsorbed on Basel-Plane Oriented Graphite, Phys. Rev. A 8, 1589 (1973).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    D. F. Brewer, Some Thermal, Magnetic and Flow Properties of Adsorbed He and 3He-4He Mixtures, J. Low Temp. Phys. 3, 205 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. M. Kosterlitz and D. J. Thouless, Ordering, Metastability and Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional Systems, J. Phys. C 6, 1181 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    H. P. R. Frederikse, On the Specific Heat of Adsorbed Helium, Physica (Utrecht) 15, 860 (1949).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    J. A. Herb and J. G. Dash, Mass Transport of 4He Films Adsorbed on Graphite, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 846 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    A. D. Migone, J. Krim, J. G. Dash, and J. Suzanne, Incomplete Wetting of 4He Films on Ag and Au (111) Surfaces, Phys. Rev. B 31, 7643 (1985).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    K. Wilson, Adsorption, in Cryogenic Fundamentals, G. G. Haselden (Ed.), Academic Press, London, 1971.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    G. Davey, Cryosorption Pumping, in Advanced Cryogenics, C. A. Bailey (Ed.), Plenum Press, New York, 1971.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    P. Debye, Einige Bemerkungen zur Magnetisieurung bei Taefer Temperature, Ann. Phys. 81, 1154 (1926).MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    W. F. Giauque, Paramagnetism and the Third Law of Thermodynamics. Interpretation of the Low Temperature Specific Heat of Gadolinium Sulfate, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 49, 1870 (1927).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    W. F. Giauque and D. P. MacDogall, Attainment of Temperatures Below 1° Absolute by Demagnetization of Gd2(SO4)3.8H20, Phys. Rev. 43, 768 (1933).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    C V. Herr, C. B. Barnes, and J. G. Daunt, The Design and Operation of a Magnetic Refrigeration Maintaining Temperatures Below 1 K, Rev. Sci. Insttum. 25, 1088 (1954).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    M. W. Zemansky, Heat and Thermodynamics, 5th ed., Chap. 14, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    R. P. Hudson, Principles and Application of Magnetic Cooling, Chap. V, North Holland Publishing, Amsterdam, 1972.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    J. A. Barclay and W. A. Steyert, Materials for Magnetic Refrigeration, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Report LA-8746-MS (May 1981).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    W. A. Steyert, Magnetic Refrigeration, in Liquid Cryogens, Vol. II, K. D. Williamson, Jr. and F. J. Edeskietz (Eds.), Chap. 6, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1983.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    W. P. Pratt, S. S. Rosenblum, W. A Steyert, and J. A. Barclay, A Continuous Demagnetization Refrigerator Operating Near 2 K and a Study of Magnetic Refrigerants, Cryogenics 17, 689 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    R. Beranger, G. Bon Mardion, G. Claudet, C. Delpuech, A. F. Lacaze, and A. A. Lacaze, A Gadolinium Gallium Garnet Double Acting Reciprocating Magnetic Refrigerator, Adv. Cryog. Eng. 27, 703 (1982).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    A. F. Lacaze, A. A. Lacaze, R. Beranger, and G. Bon Mardion, Thermodynamic Aspects of a Double Acting Reciprocating Magnetic Refrigerator, Proceedings of the 9th International Cryogenics Engineering Conference, pp. 14–17, Butterworths, London, 1982.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    A. F. Lacaze, R Beranger, G. Bon Mardian, G. Claudet, and A. A. Lacaze, Double Acting Reciprocating Magnetic Refrigerator: Recent Improvements, Adv. Cryog. Eng. 29, 573 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven W. Van Sciver
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations