Forced Convection Normal Helium

  • Steven W. Van Sciver
Part of the The International Cryogenics Monograph Series book series (ICMS)


In many applications of cryogenics, cooling is achieved best by confining the fluid to a tube or duct and circulating it through the system in a closed loop. Several aspects of this method distinguish it from immersion cooling in a pool of liquid. First, the fluid characteristics are more variable because the system is not restricted to operation in the liquid state. Subcritical fluids are obtained relatively easily in closed systems. Second, apart from the fluid properties, the mass flow or fluid velocity may be varied externally to obtain optimum flow or heat transfer characteristics. Finally, because forced flow systems are predominantly one dimensional, there is a greater possibility to interpret and predict the fluid behavior including pressure drop and heat transfer.


Heat Transfer Pressure Drop Heat Transfer Coefficient Mass Flow Rate Void Fraction 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven W. Van Sciver
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

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