Pool Boiling He I Heat Transfer

  • Steven W. Van Sciver
Part of the The International Cryogenics Monograph Series book series (ICMS)


Normal helium is a simple liquid with state properties that can be described reasonably well by statistical models of the type introduced in Chapter 3. However, the dynamics of heat transfer are of particular interest to engineering applications. Heat transfer, which is a nonequilibrium process, is probably the most important single characteristic of cryogenic fluids. The subject has considerable physical basis, and the models used to describe the phenomena are a combination of fundamental physics and engineering correlations. Pool boiling He I heat transfer is probably the most studied engineering problem related to liquid helium. Pool boiling is a common term used to describe an experimental configuration consisting of a heater, either a plate or wire, immersed in a large bath of the fluid. Normally, the bath has such an extent that it is possible to assume it to be infinite in size relative to the heater sample. This problem is a classic in heat transfer research; although more complex configurations are needed to model true engineering systems. Heat transfer to forced flow helium, which is a wholly different problem, is the subject of Chapter 7.


Heat Transfer Heat Flux Rayleigh Number Liquid Helium Heat Transfer Process 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    E. R. G. Eckert and R. M. Drake, Analysis of Heat and Mass Transfer, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    F. P. Incropera and D. P. Dewitt, Fundamentals of Heat Transfer, Wiley, New York, 1981.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. A. Whitehead, Survey of Hydrodynamic Instabilities, in Fluctuations, Instabilities and Phase Transitions, Tormad Riste (Ed.), pp. 153–180, Plenum Press, New York, 1975.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. P. Behringer and G. Ahlers, Heat Transport and Temporal Evolution of Fluid Flow Near the Rayleigh-Bénard Instability in Cylindrical Containers, J. Fluid Mech. 125, 219 (1982).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. G. J. Lucas, J. M. Pfotenhauer, and R. J. Donnelly, Stability and Heat Transfer of Rotating Cryogens. Part 1. Influence of Rotation on the Onset of Convection in Liquid ‘He, J. Fluid Mech. 129, 251 (1983).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    D. N. Sinha, J. S. Semura, and L. C. Brodie, Homogeneous Nucleation in 4He: A Corresponding States Analysis, Phys. Rev. A 26, 1048 (1982).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Frenkel, Kinetic Theory of Liquids, Chap. 7, Dover, New York, 1955.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. Flint and J. Van Cleve, Heat Transport to He I from Polished Silicon Surface, Adv. Cryog. Eng. 27, 283 (1982).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y. Y. Hsu and R. W. Graham, An Analytical and Experimental Study of the Thermal Boundary Layer and the Ebullition Cycle in Nucleate Boiling, NASA TN D-594 (1961).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    W. B. Bald, Cryogenic Heat Transfer Research at Oxford, Part I, Nucleate Pool Boiling, Cryogenics 13, 457 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. S. Kutateladze, Statistical Science & Technical Publications of Literature on Machinery, Atomic Energy Commission Translation 3770, Technical Information Services, Oak Ridge, TN (1949), 1952.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    W. B. Bald and T. V. Wang, The Nucleate Pool Boiling Dilemma, Cryogenics 16, 314 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. Schmidt, Review of Steady State and Transient Heat Transfer in Pool Boiling Helium I, in Stability of Superconductors, pp. 17–32, International Institute of Refrigeration Commission A 1/2, Saclay, France, 1981.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    L. S. Tong, Boiling Heat Transfer and Two Phase Flow, Chap. 2, Wiley, New York, 1965.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    N. Zuber, M. Tribus, and J. W. Westwater, The Hydrodynamic Crisis in Pool Boiling of Saturated and Subcooled Liquids, in International Development in Heat Transfer, Part. II, pp. 230–234, ASME, New York, 1961.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. V. Smith, Review of Heat Transfer to Helium I, Cryogenics 9, 11 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. N. Lyon, Boiling Heat Transfer and Peak Nucleate Boiling Fluxes in Saturated Liquid Helium Between J. and Critical Temperatures, Adv. Cryog. Eng. 10, 371 (1965).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    E. Ibrahim, R. W. Boom, and G. E. McIntosh, Heat Transfer to Subcooled Liquid Helium, Adv. Cryog. Eng. 23, 333 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Capsi, Heat Transfer to Subcooled He I, Adv. Cryog. Eng. 29, 281 (1984).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yu. A. Kirichenko, K. V. Rusanov, and E. G. Tyurina, Heat Transfer in Subcooled Liquid Cryogens, Cryogenics 23, 209 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    F. Irie, G. Kippling, K. Luders, T. Matsushita, U. Ruppert, and M. Takeo, Heat Transfer to Helium in the Near Critical Region, Adv. Cryog. Eng. 23, 326 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. A. Hilal, R. W. Boom, and M. M. El-Wakil, An Experimental Investigation of Free Convection Heat Transfer in Supercritical Helium, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 23, 697 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    G. Kippling and K. Kutzner, in Pure and Applied Cryogenics, Vol.6, pp. 97–107, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1967.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    S. Sato, Cryog. Eng. (Jp.) 9, 2 (1974).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. A. Hilal, Analytical Study of Laminar Free Convection Heat Transfer to Supercritical Helium, Cryogenics 18, 545 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. H. Lienhard and P. T. Y. Wong, The Dominant Unstable Wavelength and Minimum Heat Flux During Film Boiling on a Horizontal Cylinder, J. Heat Transfer 86, 220 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    B. P. Breen and J. W. Westwater, Effects of Diameter of Horizontal Tubes on Film Boiling Heat Transfer, Chem. Eng. Prog. 58, 67 (1962).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    E. G. Brentari, P. J. Giarratano, and R. V. Smith, Boiling Heat Transfer for Oxygen, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, and Helium, NBS Technical Note 317, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, Sept. 20, 1965.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. N. Wilson, Heat Transfer to Boiling Liquid Helium in Narrow Vertical Channels, Liquid Helium Technology, Proceedings of the International Institute of Refrigeration, Commission 1, Boulder, CO, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1966, pp. 109–114.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    S. G. Sydoriak and T. R. Roberts, Study of Boiling in Short Narrow Channels and Its Application to Design of Magnets Cooled by Liquid H2 and N2, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 143 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    S. Lehangre, J. C. Boissin, C. Johannes, and A. de La Harpe, Critical Nucleate Boiling of Liquid Helium in Narrow Tubes and Annuli, Proceedings of the 2nd International Cryogenics Engineering Conference, p. 274, Hife Science and Technology, Brighton, 1968.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Z. Chen and S. W. Van Sciver, Channel Heat Transfer in He I—Steady State Orientation Dependence, Adv. Cryog. Eng. 31, 431 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    W. G. Steward, Transient Helium Heat Transfer Phase I—Static Coolant, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 21, 863 (1978).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    C. Schmidt, Transient Heat Transfer and Recovery Behavior of Superconductors, IEEE Trans. Magnet. Mag-17, 738 (1981).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    J. C. Boissin, J. J. Thibault, J. Roussel, and E. Faddi, Boiling Heat Transfer and Peak Nucleate Boiling Flux in Liquid Helium, Adv. Cryog. Eng. 13, 607 (1967).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    R. D. Cummings and J. L. Smith, Boiling Heat Transfer to Liquid Helium, Liquid Helium Technology, Proceedings of the International Institute of Refrigeration, Commission I, Boulder, CO, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1966, pp. 85–96.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    H. Ogata and W. Nakayama, Boiling Heat Transfer to Helium from Machined and Chemically Treated Copper Surfaces, Adv. Cryog. Eng. 27, 309 (1982).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven W. Van Sciver
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations