Helium as a Quantum Fluid
Some of the quantum mechanical aspects of gaseous and liquid helium have been introduced in Chapter 3 as deviations from the classical models. In particular, it was shown that the equation of state and transport models can be treated in terms of quantum mechanical scattering theory. These are not the most dramatic quantum features of helium. In fact, liquid helium below T λ = 2.172 K at saturated vapor pressure behaves in such a way that its physical properties can be understood only by using a fully quantum mechanical model with a sizable fraction of the particles in the “condensed” ground state. This condensed state is envisioned to have a number of unique characteristics including zero entropy and viscosity.
KeywordsHeat Transport Liquid Helium Critical Velocity Vortex Line Critical Heat Flux
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