Axonally Transported Phospholipids and Neurite Regrowth

  • Mario Alberghina
Part of the FIDIA Research Series book series (FIDIA, volume 4)


The growing body of knowledge concerning the axonal transport of neuronal intracellular components is very impressive today even if restricted to the multidisciplinary achievements obtained in investigating the phospholipid transport alone. Despite the large number of investigators who have sought to determine, at a molecular level, the dynamics of phospholipid transport and a great variety of substances and organelles in both directions, we do not actually have a clear idea of the mechanism underlying this process. However, recent work from many laboratories, addressed towards the understanding of how normal cells function in delivering substances to the periphery, is promising in this regard. Interestingly, the recognition of the features of intracellular transport in axotomized neurons capable of regeneration paves the way to a tighter linkage of innovative research between basic neuroscience and clinical concern.


Sciatic Nerve Axonal Transport Ventral Horn Hypoglossal Nerve Acyltransferase Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abe T, Haga T, Kurokawa M (1973) Rapid transport of phosphatidylcholine occurring simultaneously with protein transport in the frog sciatic nerve. Biochem J 136: 731–740.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alberghina M, Viola M, Moro F, Giuffrida AM (1981a) Axonal transport of phospholipids in rabbit optic pathway. Neurochem Res 6: 633–647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alberghina M, Viola M, Giuffrida AM (1981b) Rapid axonal transport of phosphatidylinositol in the rabbit optic pathway. J Neurosci Res 6: 723–731.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alberghina M, Viola M, Giuffrida AM (1982a) Transfer of axonally transported phospholipids into myelin isolated from the rabbit optic pathway. Neurochem Res 7: 139–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alberghina M, Karlsson JO, Giuffrida AM (1982b) Rapid migration of inositol phospholipids with axonally transported substances in the rabbit optic pathway. J Neurochem 39: 223–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alberghina M, Giuffrida AM (1982c) The role of phospholipids in axonal growth and function. In: Giuffrida Stella AM, Gombos G, Benzi G, Bachelard HS (eds): Basic and clinical aspects of molecular neurobiology. Fondaz Intern Menarini Publisher, Milano; pp. 156–172.Google Scholar
  7. Alberghina M, Viola M, Giuffrida AM (1983a) Rapid axonal transport of glycerophospholipids in regenerating hypoglossal nerve of the rabbit. J Neurochem 40: 25–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alberghina M, Moschella F, Viola M, Brancati V, Micali G, Giuffrida AM (1983b) Changes in rapid transport of phospholipids in the rat sciatic nerve during axonal regeneration. J Neurochem 40: 32–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Alberghina M, Viola M, Moschella F, Giuffrida AM (1983c) Axonal transport of glycerophospholipids in regenerating sciatic nerve of the rat during aging. J Neurosci Res 9: 393–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Alberghina M, Viola M, Moschella F, Giuffrida AM (1983d) Myelination of regenerating sciatic nerve of the rat: lipid components and synthesis of myelin lipids. Neurochem Res 8: 133–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Alberghina M, Viola M, Giuffrida AM (1984) Myelination process in the rat sciatic nerve during regeneration and development: molecular species composition and acyl group biosynthesis of choline-, ethanolamine-, and serine-glycerophospholipids of myelin fractions. Neurochem Res 9: 887–901.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Alberghina M, Viola M, Moro F, Giuffrida AM (1985) Remodeling and sorting process of ethanolamine and choline glycerophospholipids during their axonal transport in the rabbit optic pathway. J Neurochem 45: 1333–1340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Aldskogius H, Barron KD, Regal R (1980) Axon reaction in dorsal motor vagal and hypoglossal neurons of the adult rat. Light microscopy and RNA-cytochemistry. J Comp Neurol 193: 165–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ansell GB, Spanner S (1968) Plasmalogenase activity in normal and demyelinating tissue of the central nervous system. Biochem J 108: 207–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Baker RR, Thompson W (1972) Positional distribution and turnover of fatty acids in phosphatidic acid, phosphoinositides, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in rat brain in vivo. Biochim Biophys Acta 270: 489–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bell RM, Coleman RA (1980) Enzymes of glycerolipid synthesis in eukaryotes. Ann Rev Biochem 49: 459–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Benes F, Higgins JA, Barrnett RJ (1973) Ultrastructural localization of phospholipid synthesis in the rat trigeminal nerve during myelination. J Cell Biol 57: 613–629.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brunetti M, Droz B, Di Giamberardino L, Koenig HL, Carretero F, Porcellati G (1983) Axonal transport of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids. Preferential accumulation of transported ethanolamine plasmalogen in myelin. Neurochem Pathol 1: 59–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cova JL, Barron KD (1981) Uptake of tritiated leucine by axotomized cervical motoneurons: an autoradiographic study. Exp Mol Pathol 34: 159–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Currie JR, Grafstein B, Whitnall MH, Alpert R (1978) Axonal transport of lipid in goldfish optic axons. Neurochem Res 3: 479–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. DeVries GH, Norton WT (1974) The fatty acid composition of sphingolipids from bovine CNS axons and myelin. J Neurochem 22: 251–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. DeVries GH, Zmachinski CJ (1980) The lipid composition of rat CNS axolemma-enriched fractions. J Neurochem 34: 424–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. DeVries GH, Anderson MG, Johnson D (1983) Fractionation of isolated rat CNS myelinated axons by sucrose density gradient centrifugation in a zonal rotor. J Neurochem 40: 1709–1717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Droz B, Di Giamberardino L, Koenig HL, Boyenval J, Hassig R (1978) Axon-myelin transfer of phospholipid components in the course of their axonal transport as visualized by radioautography. Brain Res 155: 347–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Droz B, Di Giamberardino L, Koenig HL (1981) Contribution of axonal transport to the renewal of myelin phospholipids in peripheral nerves. I. Quantitative radioautographic study. Brain Res 219: 57–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dziegielewska KM, Evans CAN, Saunders NR (1980) Rapid effect of nerve injury upon axonal transport of phospholipids. J Physiol 304: 83–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Fonnum F, Frizzel M, Sjöstrand J (1973) Transport, turnover and distribution of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase in the vagus nerve and hypoglossal nerve of the rabbit. J Neurochem 21: 1109–1120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gould RM, Spivack WD, Sinatra RS, Lindquist TD, Ingoglia NA (1982) Axonal transport of choline lipids in normal and regenerating rat sciatic nerve. J Neurochem 39: 1569–1578.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gould RM, Pant H, Gainer H, Tytell M (1983) Phospholipid synthesis in the squid giant axon: incorporation of lipid precursors. J Neurochem 40: 1293–1299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Grafstein B, Miller JA, Ledeen RW, Haley J, Specht SC (1975) Axonal transport of phospholipids in goldfish optic system. Exp Neurol 46: 261–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grafstein B, McQuarrie IG (1978) Role of the nerve cell body in axonal regeneration. In: CW Cotman (ed): Neuronal Plasticity. Raven Press, New York; pp. 155–195.Google Scholar
  32. Grafstein B, Forman DS (1980) Intracellular transport in neurons. Physiol Rev 60: 1167–1283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Guy JR, Bisby MA (1983) Velocity of axonal transport of phospholipid in rat sciatic nerve. Exp Neurol 82: 706–710.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Haley JE, Ledeen RW (1979a) Incorporation of axonally transported substances into myelin lipids. J Neurochem 32: 735–742.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Haley JE, Tirri LJ, Ledeen RW (1979b) Axonal transport of lipids in the rabbit optic system. J Neurochem 32: 727–734.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Harkonen MHA, Kauffman FC (1974) Metabolic alterations in the axotomized superior cervical ganglion of the rat. II. The pentose phosphate pathway. Brain Res 65: 141–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hitzemann R, Loh H (1982) The transport and turnover of phosholipids in the rat nigrostriatal system: Effects of öf-amphetamine and haloperidol. Res Comm Chem Pathol 35: 209–227.Google Scholar
  38. Jerkins A, Kauffman FC (1983) Increased lipid content in the rat axotomized superior cervical ganglion. Exp Neurol 79: 347–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kerns JM, Hinsman EJ (1973) Neuroglial response to sciatic neurectomy. I. Light microscopy and autoradiography. J Comp Neurol 151: 237–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kumara-Siri MH, Gould RM (1980) Enzymes of phospholipid synthesis: axonal versus Schwann cell distribution. Brain Res 186: 315–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lands WEM (1960) The enzymatic acylation of lysolecithin. J Biol Chem 235: 2233–2237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Ledeen RW, Haley JE (1983) Axon-myelin transfer of glycerol-labeled and inorganic phosphate during axonal transport. Brain Res 269: 267–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lee PK, Deskmukh DS, Wisniewski HM, Brockerhoff H (1982) Axonal transport of phosphatidylcholine and two synthetic analogs. Neurochem Int 4: 355–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lieberman AR (1971) The axon reaction: a review of the principal features of perikaryal responses to axon injury. Int Rev Neurobiol 14: 49–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Longo FM, Hammerschlag R (1980) Relation of somal lipid synthesis to the fast axonal transport of protein and lipid. Brain Res 193: 471–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Matthews M and Nelson V (1975) Detachment of structurally intact nerve ending from chromatolytic neurones of rat superior cervical ganglion during the depression of synaptic transmission induced by post-ganglionic axotomy. J Physiol 245: 91–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Miani N, Rizzoli A, Bucciante G (1961) Metabolic and chemical changes in regenerating neurons-II. In vitro rate of incorporation of amino acids into proteins of the nerve cell perikaryon of the C.8 spinal ganglion of rabbit. J Neurochem 7: 161–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Miani N (1962) Metabolic and chemical changes in regenerating neurons-III. The rate of incorporation of radioactive phosphate into individual phospholipids of the nerve-cell perikaryon of the C.8 spinal ganglion in vitro. J Neurochem 9: 537–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Miani N (1963) Analysis of the somato-axonal movement of phospholipids in the vagus and hypoglossal nerves. J Neurochem 10: 859–874.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Reisert I, Wildemann G, Grab D, Pilgrim CH (1984) The glial reaction in the course of axon regeneration: a stereological study of the rat hypoglossal nucleus. J Comp Neurol 229: 121–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rostas JAP, McGregor A, Jeffrey PL, Austin L (1975) Transport of cholesterol in the chick optic system. J Neurochem 24: 295–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sinicropi DV, Michels K, McIlwain DL (1982) Acetylcholinesterase distribution in axotomized frog motoneurons. J Neurochem 38:1099–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sjöstrand J (1966) Studies on glial cells in the hypoglossal nucleus of the rabbit during nerve regeneration. Acta Physiol Scand 67: 1–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Smith CB, Crane AM, Kadekaro M, Agranoff BW, Sokoloff L (1984) Stimulation of protein synthesis and glucose utilization in the hypoglossal nucleus induced by axotomy. J Neurosci 4: 2489–2496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Sunner BEH, Sutherland FI (1973) Quantitative electron microscopy on the injured hypoglossal nucleus in the rat. J Neurocytol 2: 315–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sun GY, Sun AY (1972) Phospholipids and acyl groups of synaptosomal and myelin membranes isolated from the cerebral cortex of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). Biochim Biophys Acta 280: 306–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tang BY, Komiya Y, Austin L (1974) Axoplasmic flow of phospholipids and cholesterol in the sciatic nerve of normal and dystrophic mice. Exp Neurol 43: 13–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Toews AD, Goodrum JF, Morell P (1979) Axonal transport of phospholipids in the rat visual system. J Neurochem 32: 1165–1173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Toews AD, Padilla SS, Roger LJ, Morell P (1980) Axonal transport of glycerophospholipids following intracerebral injection of glycerol into substantia nigra or lateral geniculate body. Neurochem Res 5: 1175–1183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Toews AD, Morell P (1981) Turnover of axonally transported phospholipids in nerve endings of retinal ganglion cells. J Neurochem 37: 1316–1323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Toews AD, Saunders BF, Blaker WD, Morell P (1983) Differences in the kinetics of axonal transport for individual lipid classes in rat sciatic nerve. J Neurochem 40: 555–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Torvik A, Soreide AJ (1975) The perineuronal glial reaction after axotomy. Brain Res 95: 519–529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Webster GR, Alpern RJ (1964) Studies on the acylation of lysolecithin by rat brain. Biochem J 90: 35–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Woelk H, Porcellati G (1973) Subcellular distribution and kinetic properties of rat brain phospholipases Al and A2. Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. Physiol Chem 354: 90–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wooten FG, Park DH, Joh TH, Reis DJ (1978) Immunochemical demonstration of reversible reduction in choline acetyltransferase concentration in rat hypoglossal nucelus after hypoglossal nerve transection. Nature (London) 275: 324–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Yoshino JE, Griffin JW, DeVries GH (1983) Identification of an axolemma-enriched fraction from peripheral nerve. J Neurochem 41: 1123–1126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario Alberghina
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of CataniaCataniaItaly

Personalised recommendations