Health Behavior Research and Oral Health

  • Helen C. Gift
  • B. Alexander White


For over four decades, health behavior research has been an important tool in understanding the actions of dental practitioners, patients, and administrators of oral health services. Early investigations of fluoridation of public water supplies provided information on health behaviors of organizers and policy makers at the community level. Following World Wa. II., there was increased interest in the characteristics of dentists and their practice activities and in the impact of practitioner behavior on oral health status, access, and cost. With the increasing availability of additional preventive strategies, such as topical fluoride applications and dental sealants, compliance with these new regimens on the part of the public, patients, and health care professionals was the object of considerable behavioral research (Richards & Cohen, 1971). The evolution of the profession from a treatment to a prevention orientation in the 1960s and 1970s brought increased interest in the organization of dental practices and the types of services provided, the employment of dental hygienists and auxiliary personnel, and dentist-patient interactions. Concurrently, as the population of the United States increased, there was a surge of interest in estimating the size and composition of the dental workforce. This increasing interest resulted in other thrusts for behavior research: understanding what type of health professional was attracted to dentistry, training the ideal dentist, assuring that appropriate practice strategies were developed and used, and expanding the function of dental auxiliaries.


Oral Health Oral Hygiene Dental Care Dental Service Oral Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Albino, J. E. (1984). Psychosocial aspects of malocclusion. In J. D. Matarazzo, S. M. Weiss, & J. A. Herd (Eds.), Behavioral health: Handbook of health enhancement and disease prevention (pp. 918–929). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  2. Albino, J. E. N., & Lawrence, S. D. (1993). Promoting oral health in adolescents. In S. G. Millstein, A. C. Petersen, & E. O. Nightingale (Eds.), Promoting the health of adolescents: New directions for the twenty-first century (pp. 242–259). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Allen, K. D., Loiben, T., Allen, S. J., & Stanley, R. T. (1992). Dentist-implemented contingent escape for management of disruptive child behavior, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(3), 629–636.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amstutz, R. D., & Shulman, J. D. (1994). Perceived needs for dental continuing education within the Army dental care system, Military Medicine, 159(1), 1–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Andersen, R., Marcus, M., & Mahshigan, M. (1995). A comparative systems perspective on oral health promotion and disease prevention. In L. K. Cohen & H. C. Gift (Eds.), Disease prevention and oral health promotion: Socio-dental sciences in action (pp. 307–340). Copenhagen: Munksgaard.Google Scholar
  6. Anderson, R. J. & Morgan, J. D. (1992). Marketing dentistry: A pilot study in Dudley. Community Dental Health, 9(Supplement 1), 1–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Antczak-Bouckoms, A. A., & Tulloch, J. F. C. (1995). Clinical decision analysis. In L. K. Cohen & H. C. Gift (Eds.), Disease prevention and oral health promotion: Socio-dental sciences in action (pp. 427–453). Copenhagen: Munksgaard.Google Scholar
  8. Attwood, D., West, P., & Blinkhorn, A. S. (1993). Factors associated with the dental visiting habits of adolescents in the west of Scotland, Community Dental Health, 10(4), 365–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bader, J. D., & Shugars, D. A. (1992). Understanding dentists’ restorative treatment decisions, Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 52(2), 102–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bell, W. E. (1989). Orofacial pains: Classifications, diagnosis, management, (4th ed.). Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers.Google Scholar
  11. Blinkhorn, A. S. (1993). Factors affecting the compliance of patients with preventive dental regimens. International Dental Journal, 43(Supplement 1), 294–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen, M-s. (1995). Oral health of disadvantaged populations. In L. K. Cohen & H. C. Gift (Eds.), Disease prevention and oral health promotion: Socio-dental sciences in action (pp. 153–212). Copenhagen: Munksgaard.Google Scholar
  13. Cohen, L. K. & Bryant, P. S. (Eds.) (1984). Social sciences in dentistry: A critical bibliography: Vol. II. London: Quintessence Publishing for the Federation Dentaire Internationale.Google Scholar
  14. Cons, N. C., Jenny, J., Kohout, F. J., Jakobsen, J., Shi, Y., Ying, W. H., & Pakains, G. (1994). Comparing ethnic group-specific DAI equations with the standard DAI, International Dental Journal, 44, 153–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Corah, N. L. (1988). Dental anxiety: Assessment, reduction, and increasing patient satisfaction, Dental Clinics of North America, 32(4), 779–790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Croucher, F. (1993). General dental practice, health education, and promotion: A critical reappraisal. In L. Schou & A. S. Blinkhorn (Eds.), Oral health promotion (pp. 153–168). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Diehnelt, D. E. (1993). The cost of infection control in dental clinics: A comprehensive case study, Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry, 14(10), 1329–1335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Dionne, R. A., & Gift, H. C. (1988). Drugs used for parenteral sedation in dental practice, Anesthesia Progress, 35, 199–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Drury, T. F. & Snowden, C. B. (1995). Community oral health promotion: Organizational, methodological, and statistical issues. In L. K. Cohen & H. C. Gift (Eds.), Disease prevention and oral health promotion: Socio-dental sciences in action (pp. 505–584). Copenhagen: Munksgaard.Google Scholar
  20. Feigal, D. W. (1991). The prevalence of oral lesions in HIV-infected homosexual and bisexual men: Three San Francisco epidemiological cohorts, AIDS, 5, 519–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Frazier, P. J. & Horowitz, A. M. (1995). Prevention: A public health perspective. In L. K. Cohen & H. C. Gift (Eds.), Disease prevention and oral health promotion: Socio-dental sciences in action (pp. 109–152). Copenhagen: Munksgaard.Google Scholar
  22. Gerbert, B. (1989). The impact of AIDS on dental practice: Update 1989, Journal of Dental Education, 53(9), 529–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Gerbert, B., Bleecker, T., & Saub, E. (1994). Dentists and the patients who love them: Professional and patient views of dentistry, Journal of the American Dental Association, 125(3), 264–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Gerbert, B., Bleecker, T., & Saub E. (1995). Risk perception and risk communication: Benefits of dentist-patient discussions, Journal of the American Dental Association, 126, 333–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Gift, H. C. (1977). The occupation of dentistry: Its relation to illness and death: A review of and comment on published research, Journal of the American Dental Association, 95, 606–613.Google Scholar
  26. Gift, H. C. (1986), Current utilization patterns of oral hygiene practices: State-of-the-science review. In H. Löe & D. V. Kleinman (Eds.), Dental plaque control measure and oral hygiene practices (pp. 39–71). Oxford: IRL Press.Google Scholar
  27. Gift, H. C. (1988). Issues of aging and oral health promotion, Gerodontics, 4, 194–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Gift, H. C. (1991a). Issues to consider in the control of acute pain, fear and anxiety. In R. A. Dionne & J. C. Phero (Eds.), Management of pain and anxiety in dental practice (pp. 1–15). New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  29. Gift, H. C. (1991b). Prevention of oral diseases and oral health promotion. Current Opinion in Dentistry, 1, 337–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Gift, H. C. (1993). Social factors in oral health promotion. In L. Schou & A. S. Blinkhorn (Eds.), Oral health promotion (pp. 65–102). London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Gift, H. C., Corbin, S. B., & Nowjack-Raymer, R. E. (1994). Public knowledge of prevention of dental diseases, Public Health Reports, 109(3), 397–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gift, H. C., Gerbert, B., Kress, G. C., & Reisine, S. T. (1990). Social, economic, and professional dimensions of the oral health care delivery system, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 12(4), 161–169.Google Scholar
  33. Gift, H. C., & Milton, B. B. (1975, Fall). Comparison of two national preventive dentistry surveys: 1957–1974. Journal of Preventive Dentistry, 25-27.Google Scholar
  34. Gould, I. M. & Buckingham, J. K. (1993). Cost effectiveness of prophylaxis in dental practice to prevent infective endocarditis, British Heart fournal, 70(1), 79–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Grogono, A. L. & Lancaster, D. M. (1988). Factors influencing dental career choice—A survey of currently-enrolled students and implications for recruitment, Journal of the American College of Dentists, 55(4), 30–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Horowitz, A. M., Nourjah, P., & Gift, H. C. (1995). U. S. adult knowledge of risk factors and signs of oral cancers: 1990, Journal of the American Dental Association, 126, 39–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Humphris, G. M., & Peacock, L. (1993). Occupational stress and job satisfaction in the community dental service of North Wales: A pilot study, Community Dental Health, 10(1), 73–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Jeffcoat, M. K. & Clark, W. B. (1995). Research, technology transfer, and dentistry, Journal of Dental Education, 59(1), 169–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Kiyak, H. A. (1993). Age and culture: Influences on oral health behavior, International Dental fournal, 43(1), 9–16.Google Scholar
  40. Kiyak, H. A. & Brudvik, J. (1992). Dental students’ self-assessed competence in geriatric dentistry, Journal of Dental Education, 56(11), 728–734.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Krasnegor, N. A., Epstein, L., Johnson, S. B., & Jaffe, S. J. (Eds.). (1993). Developmental aspects of health compliance behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  42. Kress, G. C. (1995). Dental education in transition. In L. K. Cohen & H. C. Gift (Eds.), Disease prevention and oral health promotion: Socio-dental sciences in action (pp. 387–425). Copenhagen: Munksgaard.Google Scholar
  43. Kunzel, C. & Sadowsky, D. (1993). Predicting dentists’ perceived occupational risk for HIV infection, Social Sciences in Medicine, 36(12), 1579–1586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Locker, D. & Grushka, M. (1987). The impact of dental and facial pain, Journal of Dental Research, 66(9), 1414–1417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lockhart, P. B. & Clark, J. (1994). Pretherapy dental status of patients with malignant conditions of the head and neck, Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, and Oral Pathology, 77(3), 236–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Maizels, J., Maizels, A., & Sheiham, A. (1991). Dental disease and health behaviour: The development of an interactional model, Community Dental Health, 8, 340–346.Google Scholar
  47. Mecklenburg, R. E., Christen, A. G., Gerbert, B., Gift, H. C., Glynn, T. J., Jones, R. B., Lindsay, E., Manley, M. W., & Severson, H. (1990). How to help your patients stop using tobacco. NIH Publication No. 91-3191. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute.Google Scholar
  48. Mozer, J. E., Lloyd, C., & Puente, E. S. (1990). The relationship of bi/polar personality patterns with self esteem, stress, and satisfaction in dental school, Journal of Dental Education, 54(2), 153–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Nash, D. A. (1994). A tension between two cultures... Dentistry as a profession and dentistry as proprietary, Journal of Dental Education, 58(4), 301–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. National Institute of Dental Research. (1994). Office of Communication Activities. Annual Report of the National Institute of Dental Research.Google Scholar
  51. Neenan, M. E., Paunovich, E., Solomon, E. S., & Watkins, R. T. (1993). The primary dental care workforce, Journal of Dental Education, 57(12), 863–875.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Neidle, E. A. (1994). Infectious disease in dental practice—Professional opportunities and obligations, Journal of the American College of Dentists, 61(1), 12–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Newman, J. F., & Gift, H. C. (1992). Regular pattern of preventive dental services—A measure of access, Social Sciences in Medicine, 35(8), 997–1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nourjah, P., Horowitz, A. M., & Wagener, D. K. (1994). Factors associated with the use of fluoride supplements and fluoride dentifrice by infants and toddlers, Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 54(1), 47–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nowjack-Raymer, R. E., Ainamo, J., Suomi, J. D., Kingman, A., Driscoll, W. S., & Brown, L. J. (1995). Improved periodontal status through self-assessment: A 2-year longitudinal study in teenagers, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 22, 603–608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nowjack-Raymer, R., & Gift, H. C. (1990). Contributing factors to maternal and child oral health, Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 50(6), 370–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Parsons, T. (1951). Illness and the role of the physician: A sociological perspective, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 21, 452–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Petersen, P. E., & Holst, D. (1995). Utilization of dental health services. In L. K. Cohen & H. C. Gift (Eds.), Disease prevention and oral health promotion: Socio-dental sciences in action (pp. 341–386). Copenhagen: Munksgaard.Google Scholar
  59. Reisine, S. (1993). The role of the decision maker in oral health promotion. In L. Schou & A. S. Blinkhorn (Eds.), Oral health promotion (pp. 103–120). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Reisine, S., & Locker, D. (1995). Social, psychological, and economic impacts of oral conditions and treatments. In L. K. Cohen & H. C. Gift (Eds.), Disease prevention and oral health promotion: Socio-dental sciences in action (pp. 33–71). Copenhagen: Munksgaard.Google Scholar
  61. Richards, N. D., & Cohen, L. K. (Eds.) (1971). Social sciences and dentistry: A critical bibliography. The Hague, Netherlands: A Sijthoff for the Federation Dentaire Internationale.Google Scholar
  62. Robinson, P., Zakrzewska, J. M., Maini, M., Williamson, D., & Croucher, R. (1994). Dental visiting behaviour and experiences of men with HIV British Dental Journal, 176(5), 175–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rouse, R. A., & Hamilton, M. A. (1991). Dentists evaluate their patients: An empirical investigation of preferences, Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 14(6), 637–648.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rugh, J. D., & Lemke, R. R. (1984). Significance of oral habits. In J. D. Matarazzo, S. M. Weiss, J. A. Herd, & N. E. Miller (Eds.), Behavioral health: Handbook of health enhancement and disease prevention (pp. 947–966). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  65. Russell, G. M., & Kinirons, M. J. (1993). The attitudes and experience of community dental officers in North Ireland in treating disabled people, Community Dental Health, 10(4), 327–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Schou, L. (1995). Oral health, oral health care, and oral health promotion among older adults: Social and behavioral dimensions. In L. K. Cohen & H. C. Gift (Eds.), Disease prevention and oral health promotion: Socio-dental sciences in action (pp. 213–270). Copenhagen: Munksgaard.Google Scholar
  67. Severson, H. H., Eakin, E. G., Stevens, V. J., & Iichtenstein, E. (1990). Dental office practices for tobacco users: Independent practice and HMO clinics, American Journal of Public Health, 80(12), 1503–1505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Silversin, J. (1989). Communicating with each other, International Dental Journal, 39(4), 258–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Soto-Rojas, A. E., & Cushing, A. (1992). Assessment of the need for education and/or training in the dental care of people with handicaps, Community Dental Health, 9(2), 165–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Stiefel, D. J., & Truelove, E. L. (1995). A postgraduate dental training program for treatment of persons with disabilities, Journal of Dental Education, 49(2), 85–90.Google Scholar
  71. Stilwell, N. A., & Reisine, S. (1992). Using patient-instructors to teach and evaluate interviewing skills, Journal of Dental Education, 56(2), 118–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Syrjala, A. M., Knuuttila, M. L., & Syrjala, L. K. (1994). Obstacles to regular dental care related to extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 22(4), 269–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Tay, K. M., Winn, W., Milgrom, P., & Hann, J. (1993). The effect of instruction on dentists’ motivation to manage fearful patients, Journal of Dental Education, 57(6), 444–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Tedesco, L. A. (1995). Issues in dental curriculum development and change, Journal of Dental Education, 59(1), 97–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Tedesco, L. A., Keffer, M. A., Davis, E. L., & Christersson, L. A. (1992). Effect of a social cognitive intervention on oral health status, behavior reports, and cognitions, Journal of Periodontology, 63(7), 567–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. ter Horst, G., & de Wit, C. A. (1993). Review of behavioural research in dentistry 1987–1992: Dental anxiety, dentist-patient relationship, compliance and dental attendance. International Dental Journal, 43(3 Supplement 1), 265–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Tsevat, J., Duran-Zaleski, I., & Pauker, S. G. (1989). Cost-effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis for dental procedures in patients with artificial joints, American Journal of Public Health, 79, 739–743.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Weinstein, P. (1984). Influence of dentist variables on patient behavior: Managing child behavior in the operatory. In J. D. Matarazzo, S. M. Weiss, J. A. Herd, & N. E. Miller (Eds.), Behavioral health: Handbook of health enhancement and disease prevention (pp. 930–946). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  79. White, B. A. (1994). An overview of oral health status, resources, and care delivery, Journal of Dental Education, 58(4), 285–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Workshop on Quality Assurance in Dentistry. (1994). Model clinical guidelines for primary dental health care providers for managing patients with adult periodontitis, Journal of Dental Education, 58(8), 659–662.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helen C. Gift
    • 1
  • B. Alexander White
    • 2
  1. 1.National Institute of Dental ResearchNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Kaiser PermanentePortlandUSA

Personalised recommendations