Advertisement

Contributions of Health Behavior Research to Community Health Promotion Programs

  • Caroline Schooler
  • June A. Flora

Abstract

Health behaviors and health status are influenced not only by biological and psychological factors, but also by economic, political, and sociocultural factors (Aiken & Mott, 1970; Blum, 1981; Brown, 1984; Flora, Jackson, & Maccoby, 1989; Warren, 1972). For example, leading causes of death in the United States (cardiovascular disease and cancer) have been shown to be related to lifestyle elements such as diet, exercise, and smoking (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1991). Intentional injury is another significant cause of death, especially among youths, that is strongly influenced by environmental and familial characteristics (American Psychological Association, 1993; Elliott, 1994). The important impact that societal factors have on health behavior highlights the significance of health promotion strategies targeting entire communities.

Keywords

Health Promotion Smoking Cessation Preventive Medicine Community Psychology Health Promotion Program 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aiken, M., & Mott, P. E. (Eds.). (1970). The structure of community power. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  2. Albright, C. L., Flora, J. A., & Fortmann, S. P. (1990). Restaurant menu labeling: Impact of nutrition information on entree sales and patron attitudes, Health Education Quarterly, 17, 157–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Altman, D. A., Flora, J. A., Fortmann, S. P., & Farquhar, J. W. (1987). The cost-effectiveness of three smoking cessation programs, American Journal of Public Health, 77, 162–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Altman, D. G., Balcazar, F., Fawcett, S., Seekins, T., & Young, J. Q. (1994). Public health advocacy: Creating community change to improve health. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford Center for Research in Disease Prevention.Google Scholar
  5. American Psychological Association. (1993). Violence and youth: Psychology’s response, Vol. I: Summary report of the American Psychological Association Commission on Violence and Youth. Washington, DC: APA.Google Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  7. Blackburn, H. (1983). Research and demonstration projects in community cardiovascular disease prevention, Journal of Public Health Policy, 4, 398–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Blair, S. N., Piserchia, P. V., Wilbur, C. S., & Crowder, J. H. (1986). A public health intervention model for work-site health promotion, Journal of the American Medical Association, 225, 921–926.Google Scholar
  9. Blum, H. L. (1981). Planning as a preferred instrument for achieving social change. In H. L. Blum (Ed.), Planning for health: Generics for the eighties (pp. 39–85). New York: Human Sciences.Google Scholar
  10. Blum, H. L. (1982). Social perspective on risk reduction. In M. M. Faber & A. M. Reinhardt (Eds.), Promoting health through risk reduction (pp. 19–36). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  11. Bracht, N., Finnegan, J. R., Rissel, C., Weisbrod, R., Gleason, J., Corbett, J., & Veblen-Mortenson, S. (1994). Community ownership and program continuation following a health demonstration project. Health Education Research, 2, 243.Google Scholar
  12. Bracht, N., & Kingsbury, L. (1990). Community organization principles in health promotion: A five-stage model. In N. Bracht (Ed.), Health promotion at the community level (pp. 66–88). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  13. Brannon, B. R., Dent, C. W., Flay, B. R., Smith, G., Sussman, S., Pentz, M. A., Johnson, C. A., & Hansen, W. B. (1989). The television, school, and family project: The impact of curriculum delivery format on program acceptance, Preventive Medicine, 18, 492–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brill, P. A., Kohl, H. W., Rogers, T., Collingwood, T. R., Sterling, C. L., & Blair, S. N. (1991). Recruitment, retention and success in worksite health promotion: Association with demographic characteristics, American Journal of Health Promotion, 5, 215–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown, E. R. (1984). Community organization influence on local public health care policy: A general research model and comparative case study, Health Education Quarterly, 10, 205–233.Google Scholar
  16. Brownell, K. D., Cohen, R. Y., Stunkard, A. J., Felix, M. R., & Cooley, N. B. (1984). Weight loss competitions at the worksite: Impact on weight, morale and cost-effectiveness, American Journal of Public Health, 74, 1283–1285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brownstein, J. N., Cheal, N., Ackerman, S. P., Bassford, T. L., & Campos-Outcalt, D. (1992). Breast and cervical cancer screening in minority populations: A model for using lay health educators, Journal of Cancer Education, 7, 321–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Calle, E. E., Miracle-McMahill, H. L., Moss, R. E., & Heath, C. W., Jr. (1994). Personal contact from friends to increase mammography usage, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 10, 361–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Campbell, M. K., DeVellis, B. M., Strecher, V. J., Ammerman, A. S., DeVellis, R. F., & Sandler, R. S. (1994). Improving dietary behavior: The effectiveness of tailored messages in primary care settings, American Journal of Public Health, 84, 783–787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Carlaw, R. W., Mittlemark, M., Bracht, N., & Luepker, R. (1984). Organization for a community cardiovascular health program: Experiences from the Minnesota Heart Health Program, Health Education Quarterly, 11, 243–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Carleton, R., Banspach, S., Block, L., et al. (1987). Physician attitudes and behavior concerning cholesterol: Impact of public education. CVD Epidemiology Newsletter, 41, 43.Google Scholar
  22. Carleton, R. A., Lasater, T. M., Assaf, A., Lefebvre, R. C., & McKinlay, S. M. (1987). The Pawtucket Heart Health Program. I. An experiment in population-based disease prevention, Rhode Island Medical Journal, 70, 533–538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Chavis, D. M., & Newbrough, J. R. (1986). The meaning of “community” in community psychology. Psychological sense of community: II. Research and applications (special issue). Journal of Community Psychology, 14(4), 335–340.Google Scholar
  24. Chavis, D. M., Stucky, P. E., & Wandersman, A. (1983). Returning basic research to the community: A relationship between scientists and citizens, American Psychologist, 38, 424–434.Google Scholar
  25. Cialdini, R. B., Reno, R. R., & Kallgren, C. A. (1990). A focus theory of normative conduct: Recycling the concept of norms to reduce littering in public places, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 1015–1026.Google Scholar
  26. Cirksena, M. K., & Flora, J. A. (1995). Audience segmentation in worksite health promotion: A procedure using social marketing concepts, Health Education Research, 10(2), 211–224.Google Scholar
  27. Colby, J. J., Elder, J. P., Peterson, G., Knisley, P. M., & Carleton, R. A. (1987). Promoting the selection of health food through menu item description in a family-style restaurant, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 3, 171–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Conrad, P. (1987). Who comes to work-site wellness programs? A preliminary review, Journal of Occupational Medicine, 29, 319–320.Google Scholar
  29. Cottrell, L. S., Jr. (1983). The competent community. In R. Warren & L. Lyon (Eds.), New perspectives on the American community. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.Google Scholar
  30. Crockett, S. J., Mullis, R. M., Perry, C. L., & Luepker, R. V. (1989). Parent education in youth-directed nutrition interventions, Preventive Medicine, 18, 475–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Crouch, M., Sallis, J. F., Farquhar, J. W., Haskell, W. L., Ellsworth, N. M., King, A. B., & Rogers, T. (1986). Personal and mediated health counseling for sustained dietary reduction of hypercholesterolemia, Preventive Medicine, 15, 282–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Crow, R. S., Blackburn, H., Jacobs, D. R., et al. (1986). Population strategies to enhance physical activity: The Minnesota Heart Health Program. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 711 Supplementum, 93–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. deBusk, R. F., Haskell, W. L., Miller, N. H., Berra, K., Taylor, C. B., & Berger, W. E. (1985). Medically directed at-home rehabilitation soon after clinically uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction: A new model for patient care, American Journal of Cardiology, 55, 251–257.Google Scholar
  34. DePue, J. D., Wells, B. L., Lasater, T. M., et al. (1990). Volunteers as providers of heart health programs in churches: A report on implementation, American Journal of Health Promotion, 4, 361–366.Google Scholar
  35. Dijkstra, M., de Vries, H., & Parcel, G. S. (1993). The linkage approach applied to a school-based smoking prevention program in the Netherlands, Journal of School Health, 63, 339–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Dressler, W. W. (1987). The stress process in a Southern black community: Implications for prevention research, Human Organization, 46, 211–220.Google Scholar
  37. Elder, J. P., Hovell, M. F., Lasater, T. M., Wells, B. L., & Carleton, R. A. (1985). Applications of behavior modification to community health education: The case of heart disease prevention, Health Education Quarterly, 12, 151–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Elder, J., McGraw, S., Rodrigues, A., Lasater, T., Ferreira, A., Kendal, L., Peterson, G., & Carleton, R. (1987). Evaluation of two community-wide smoking contests, Preventive Medicine, 16, 221–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Elliott, D. (1994). Youth violence: An overview. Boulder, CO: Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, University of Colorado.Google Scholar
  40. Eng, E. (1993). The Save Our Sisters Project: A social network strategy for reaching rural black women, Cancer, 72, 1071–1077.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Farquhar, J. W., Flora, J. A., & Goode, L. (1986). Comprehensive integrated health promotion programs. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  42. Farquhar, J. W., Fortmann, S. P., Maccoby, N., Haskell, W. L., Williams, P. T., Flora, J. A., Taylor, C. B., Brown, W. B., Solomon, D. S., & Hulley, S. B. (1985). The Stanford Five-City Project: Design and methods, American Journal of Epidemiology, 122, 323–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Farquhar, J. W., Maccoby, M., Wood, P. D., Alexander, J. K., Breitrose, H., Brown, B. W., Jr., Haskell, W. L., McAlister, A. L., Meyer, A. J., Nash, J. D., & Stern, M. P. (1977). Community education for cardiovascular health, Lancet, 1, 1192–1195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Felix, M. R., Stunkard, A. J., Cohen, R. Y., & Cooley, N. B. (1985). Health promotion at the worksite. I. A process for establishing programs, Preventive Medicine, 14, 99–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Flay, B. R. (1986). Mass media linkages with school-based programs for drug-abuse prevention, Journal of School Health, 56, 402–406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Flay, B. R. (1987). Mass media and smoking cessation: A critical review, American Journal of Public Health, 77, 153–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Flay, B. R., Gruder, C. L., Warnecke, R. B., Jason, L. A., & Peterson, P. (1989). One year follow-up of the Chicago televised smoking cessation program, American Journal of Public Health, 79, 1377–1380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Flora, J. A. & Cassidy, D. (1990). Roles of media in community-based health promotion. In N. Bracht (Ed.), Health promotion at the community level (pp. 143–157). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  49. Flora, J. A., Fortmann, S. P., Taylor, C. B., & Maccoby, N. (1985). Mediated smoking cessation programs in the Stanford Five-City Project, Addictive Behaviors, 10, 441–443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Flora, J. A., Jackson, C., & Maccoby, N. (1989). Indicators of societal action to promote physical health. In S. B. Kar (Ed.), Health promotion indicators and actions (pp. 118–139). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  51. Flora, J. A., Jatulis, D., Jackson, C., & Fortmann, S. P. (1993). The Stanford Five-City Heart Disease Prevention Project. In T. E. Backer & E. M. Rogers (Eds.), Organizational aspects of health communication campaigns: What works? (pp. 101–128). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  52. Flora, J. A., Roser, C., Chaffee, S., & Farquhar, J. W. (1988). Information campaign effects of different media: Results from the Stanford Five-City Project. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Portland, OR.Google Scholar
  53. Flora, J. A., & Schooler, C. (1995). Influence of health communication environments on children’s diet and exercise knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. In G. L. Kreps & D. O’Hair (Eds.), Communication and health outcomes (pp. 187–213). Cressnll, NJ: Hampton Press.Google Scholar
  54. Flora, J. A., Slater, M. D., & Maibach, E. W. (1989). Health lifestyles: An analysis of media use and interpersonal communication. Paper presented at the meeting of the International Communication Association, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  55. Fortmann, S. P., Flora, J. A., Winkleby, M. A., Schooler, C., Taylor, C. B., & Farquhar, J. W. (1995). Community intervention trials: Reflections on the Stanford Five-City Project experience, American Journal of Epidemiology, 142(6), 576–586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Freimuth, V. S., Hammond, S. L., & Stein, J. A. (1988). Health advertising: Prevention for profit, American Journal of Public Health, 78, 557–561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Fullen, M. (1985). Change processes and strategies at the local level, Elementary School Journal, 85, 391–421.Google Scholar
  58. Gans, K. M., Levin, S., Lasater, T. M., Sennett, L. L., Maroni, A., Ronan, A., & Carleton, R. A. (1990). Heart Healthy Cook-Offs in home economic classes: An evaluation with junior high school students, Journal of School Health, 60, 99–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Gonzenbach, W. J. (1992). A time-series analysis of the drug issue, 1985–1990: The press, the president and public opinion, Internationaljournal of Public Opinion Research, 4, 126–147.Google Scholar
  60. Gravell, J., Zapka, J. G., & Mamon, J. A. (1985). Impact of breast self-examination planned educational messages on social network communications: An exploratory study, Health Education Quarterly, 12, 51–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Gregg, W., Foote, A., Erfurt, J. C., & Heirich, M. A. (1990). Worksite follow-up and engagement strategies for initiating health risk behavior changes, Health Education Quarterly, 17, 455–478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Gruder, C. L., Warnecke, R. B., Jason, L. A., Flay, B. R., & Peterson, P. (1990). A televised, self-help, cigarette smoking cessation intervention, Addictive Behaviors, 15, 505–516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Grunig, J. E. (1979). Time budgets, level of involvement and use of the mass media, Journalism Quarterly, 56, 248–261.Google Scholar
  64. Hatch, H. W., & Lovelace, K. (1980). Involving the Southern rural church and students of the health professions in health education, Public Health Reports, 95, 23–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Hertzler, A. A. (1983). Children’s food patterns—a review: Family and group behavior, Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 83, 509–512.Google Scholar
  66. Hope, A., & Timmel, S. (1984). Training for transformation: A handbook for community workers. Gweru, Zimbabwe: Mambo Press.Google Scholar
  67. Hunt, M. K., Lefebvre, R. C., Hixson, M. L., Banspach, S. W., Assaf, A. R., & Carleton, R. A. (1990). Pawtucket Heart Health Program point-of-purchase nutrition education program in supermarkets, American Journal of Public Health, 80, 730–731.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Iverson, D. C., Fielding, J. E., Crow, R. S., & Christenson, G. M. (1985). The promotion of physical activity in the U.S. population: The status of programs in medical, worksite, community, and school settings. Public Health Reports, 100, 21.Google Scholar
  69. Iyengar, S. (1991). Is anyone responsible? How television frames political issues. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  70. Iyengar, S., & Kinder, D. R. (1987). News that matters. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  71. Jackson, C., Fortmann, S. P., Flora, J. A., Melton, R. J., Snider, J. P., & Littlefield, D. (1994). The capacity-building approach to intervention maintenance implemented by the Stanford Five-City Project, Health Education Research, 9, 385–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Jackson, C., Winkleby, M. A., Flora, J. A., & Fortmann, S. P. (1991). Utilization of educational resources for cardiovascular risk reduction in the Stanford Five-City Project, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 7, 82–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Jeffery, R. W., Forster, J. L., & Schmid, T. L. (1989). Worksite health promotion: Feasibility testing of repeated weight control and smoking cessation classes, American Journal of Health Promotion, 3, 11–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Jeffery, R. W., French, S. A., Raether, C., & Baxter, J. E. (1994). An environmental intervention to increase fruit and salad purchases in a cafeteria, Preventive Medicine, 23, 788–792.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Juneau, M., Rogers, F., DeSantos, V., & Yee, M. (1987). Effectiveness of self-monitored home-based moderate intensity exercise training in middle-aged men and women, American Journal of Epidemiology, 60, 66–70.Google Scholar
  76. Kelly, J. A., St. Lawrence, J. S., Diaz, Y. E., Stevenson, L., et al. (1991). HIV risk behavior reduction following intervention with key opinion leaders of population: An experimental analysis, American Journal of Public Health, 81, 168–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kennamer, J. D. (1992). Public opinion, the press and public policy. Praeger.Google Scholar
  78. Killen, J. D., Telch, M. J., Robinson, T. N., Maccoby, N., Taylor, C. B., & Farquhar, J. W. (1988). Cardiovascular disease risk reduction for tenth graders: A multiple-factor school-based approach, Journal of the American Medical Association, 260, 1728–1733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. King, A. C., Flora, J. A., Fortmann, S. P., & Taylor, C. B. (1987). Smokers’ challenge: Immediate and long-term findings of a community smoking cessation contest, American Journal of Public Health, 77, 1340–1341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. King, A. C., Saylor, K. E., Forster, S., Killen, J. D., Telch, M. J., Farquhar, J. W., & Flora, J. A. (1988). Promoting dietary change in adolescents: A school-based approach for modifying and maintaining healthy behavior, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 4, 68–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Klatcher, M. L. (1987). Prevention of tap water scald burns: Evaluation of a multimedia injury control program, American Journal of Public Health, 77, 337–354.Google Scholar
  82. Kohatsu, N. D., Cramer, E., & Bohnstedt, M. (1994). Use of a clinician reminder system for screening mammography in a public health clinic, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 10, 348–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Kotler, P. (1975). Marketing for nonprofit organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  84. Kotler, P., & Zaltman, G. (1971). Social marketing: An approach to planned social change, Journal of Marketing, 35, 3–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Kottke, T. E., Hill, C., Heitzig, C., Brekke, M., Blake, S., Arneson, S., & Caspersen, C. (1985). Smoke-free hospitals: Attitudes of patients, employees, and faculty. Minnesota Medicine, 53-55.Google Scholar
  86. Kottke, T. E., Solberg, L. I., Brekke, M. L., Conn, S. A., Maxwell, P., & Brekke, M. J. (1992). A controlled trial to integrate smoking cessation advice into primary care practice: Doctors Helping Smokers, Round III, Journal of Family Practice, 34, 701–708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Lando, H. A., Bluhm, J., & Forster, J. L. (1991). The ban on cigarette vending machines in Bloomington, Minnesota, American Journal of Public Health, 81, 1339–1340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Lando, H. A., Loken, B., Howard-Pitney, B., & Pechacek. T. (1990). Community impact of a localized smoking cessation contest, American Journal of Public Health, 80, 601–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Lasater, T. M., Carleton, R. A., & Wells, B. (1991). Religious organizations and large-scale health related lifestyle change programs, Journal of Health Education, 22, 233–239.Google Scholar
  90. Lasater, T. M., DePue, J. D., Wells, B. L., et al. (1990). The effectiveness and feasibility of delivering nutrition education programs through religious organizations, Health Promotion International, 5, 253–257.Google Scholar
  91. Lasater, T. M., Wells, B. L., Carleton, R. A., & Elder, J. P. (1986). The role of churches in disease prevention research studies, Public Health Reports, 101, 125–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Lefebvre, R. C., & Flora, J. A. (1988). Social marketing and public health intervention, Health Education Quarterly, 15, 299–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Lefebvre, R. C., Lasater, T., Carleton, R. A., & Peterson, G. (1987). Theory and delivery of health programming in the community, Preventive Medicine, 16, 890–895.Google Scholar
  94. Levin, J. S. (1984). The role of the black church in community medicine, Journal of the National Medical Association, 76, 477–483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Levy, A., & Stokes, R. (1987). Effects of a health promotion advertising campaign on sales of ready-to-eat cereals, Public Health Reports, 102, 398–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Lipari, L. (1994). Stages of change in public smoking policy: Four California cities. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  97. Luepker, R. V., Murray, D. M., Jacobs, D. R., et al. (1994). Community education for cardiovascular disease prevention: Risk factor changes in the Minnesota Heart Health Program, American Journal of Public Health, 84, 1383–1393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Luepker, R. V., & Rastam, L. (1990). Involving community health professionals and systems. In N. Bracht (Ed.), Health promotion at the community level (pp. 185–198). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  99. Maccoby, N., Farquhar, J. W., Wood, P., & Alexander, J. (1977). Reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease: Effects of a community-based campaign on knowledge and behavior, Journal of Community Health, 24, 100–114.Google Scholar
  100. Maccoby, N., & Solomon, D. S. (1981). Heart disease prevention: Community studies. In R. E. Rice & W. Paisley (Eds.), Pubic communication campaigns (pp. 105–126). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  101. Marcus, B. H., Banspach, S. W., Lefebvre, R. C., Rossi, J. S., Carleton, R. A., & Abrams, D. B. (1992). Using the stages of change model to increase the adoption of physical activity among community participants, American Journal of Health Promotion, 6, 424–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. McAlister, A., Puska, P., Koskela, K., Salonen, J. T., & Maccoby, N. (1980). Psychology in action: Mass communication and community organization for public health education, American Psychologist, 35, 375–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. McCombs, M., & Shaw, D. (1972). The agenda setting function of mass media, Public Opinion Quarterly, 36, 176–187.Google Scholar
  104. McFall, S. L., Michener, A., Rubin, D., Flay, B. R., Mermelstein, R. J., Burton, D., Jelen, P., & Warnecke, R. B. (1993). The effects and use of maintenance newsletters in a smoking cessation intervention, Addictive Behaviors, 18, 151–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. McPhee, S. J., & Detmer, W. M. (1993). Office-based interventions to improve delivery of cancer prevention services by primary care physicians, Cancer, 72, 1100–1112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Millar, W. J. (1988). Smoke in the workplace: An evaluation of smoking restrictions. Ottawa, Canada: Minister of Supply and Services.Google Scholar
  107. Minkler, M. (1985). Building supportive ties and sense of community among the inner-city elderly: The Tenderloin Senior Outreach Project, Health Education Quarterly, 12, 303–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Minkler, M. (1990). Improving health through community organization. In K. Glanz, F. M. Lewis, & B. K. Rimer (Eds.), Health behavior and health education (pp. 257–287). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  109. Mittlemark, M. B., Hunt, M. K., Heath, G. W., & Schmid, T. L. (1993). Realistic outcomes: Lessons from community-based research and demonstration programs for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, Journal of Health Policy, 14, 437–462.Google Scholar
  110. Mittlemark, M. B., Luepker, R. V., Grimm, R., Kottke, T. E., & Blackburn, H. (1988). The role of physicians in a community-wide program for prevention of cardiovascular disease: The Minnesota Heart Health Program, Public Health Reports, 103, 360–365.Google Scholar
  111. Mullis, R. M., Hunt, M. K., Foster, M., et al. (1987). The Shop Smart for Your Heart grocery program, Journal of Nutrition Education, 19, 225–228.Google Scholar
  112. Mullis, R. M., & Pirie, P. (1988). Lean meats make the grade—A collaborative nutrition intervention program. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 88, 191–195.Google Scholar
  113. Murphy, P. E. (1984). Analyzing markets. In L. W. Frederiksen, L. J. Solomon, & K. A. Brehony (Eds.), Marketing health behavior: Principles, techniques, and applications (pp. 41–58). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  114. Murray, D. M., Kurth, C., Mullis, R. M., & Jeffery, R. W. (1990). Cholesterol reduction through low intensity interventions: Results from the Minnesota Heart Health Program, Preventive Medicine, 19, 181–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Nelson, D. J., Sennett, L., Lefebvre, R. C., & Loisella, L. (1987). A campaign strategy for weight loss at work sites, Health Education Research, 2, 21–31.Google Scholar
  116. Nelson, E. C., Keller, A. M., & Zubkoff, M. (1981). Incentives for health promotion: The government’s role. In L. K. Y. Ng & D. B. Davis (Eds.), Strategies for public health: Promoting health and preventing disease (pp. 218–231). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  117. Newbrough, J. R. (1992). Community psychology in the postmodern world: Where is community psychology headed? (Special section). Journal of Community Psychology, 20(1), 10–25.Google Scholar
  118. Novelli, W. D. (1984). Developing marketing programs. In L. W. Frederiksen, L. J. Solomon, & K. A. Brehony (Eds.), Marketing health behavior: Principles, techniques, and applications (pp. 59–89). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  119. Nyswander, D. (1966). The open society: Its implications for health educators, Health Education Monographs, 1, 3–13.Google Scholar
  120. Parcel, G. S., Simons-Morton, B. G., & Kolbe, L. J. (1988). Health promotion: Integrating organizational change and student learning strategies, Health Education Quarterly, 15, 435–450.Google Scholar
  121. Pechacek, T., Freutel, J., Arkin, R., & Mittlemark, M. (1983). The Quit and Win Contest: A community-wide incentive program for smoking cessation. Paper presented at the World Congress on Behavior Therapy, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  122. Perry, C. L., & Kelder, S. H. (1992). Models for effective prevention, Journal of Aging and Health, 13, 355–363.Google Scholar
  123. Perry, C. L., Kelder, S. H., Murray, D. M., & Klepp, K. I. (1992). Community-wide smoking prevention: Long-term outcomes of the Minnesota Heart Health Program, American Journal of Public Health, 82, 1210–1216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Perry, C. L., Klepp, K. I., & Sillers, C. (1989). Community-wide strategies for cardiovascular health: The Minnesota Heart Health Program youth program, Health Education Research, 4, 87–101.Google Scholar
  125. Perry, C. L., Luepker, R. V., Murray, D. M., et al. (1989). Parent involvement with children’s health promotion: A one-year follow-up of The Minnesota Home Team, Health Education Quarterly, 16, 171–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Pertschuk, M. (1988). Smoking control: Media advocacy guidelines. Washington, DC: Advocacy Institute for the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health.Google Scholar
  127. Prochaska, J. O., Redding, C. A., Harlow, L. L., Rossi, J. S., & Velicer, W. F. (1994). The transtheoretical model of change and HIV prevention: A review, Health Education Quarterly, 21, 471–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Puska, P., McAlister, A., Niemensivy, H., Pihu, T., Wijo, J., & Koskela, K. (1987). A television format for national health promotion: Finland’s “Keys to Health.” Public Health Reports, 102, 263–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Puska, P., Salonen, J. T., Tuomilehto, J., Nissinen, A., & Kottke, T. E. (1983). Evaluating community-based preventive cardiovascular programs: Problems and experiences from the North Karelia Project, Journal of Community Health, 9, 49–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Rappaport, J. (1984). Studies in empowerment: Introduction to the issue, Prevention in Human Services, 3, 1–7.Google Scholar
  131. Relman, A. S. (1982). Encouraging the practice of preventive medicine and health promotion, Public Health Reports, 97, 216–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Reno, R. R., Cialdini, R. B., & Kallgren, C. A. (1993). The transsituational influence of social norms, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 104–112.Google Scholar
  133. Reynes, J. F., Lasater, T. M., Feldman, H., Assaf, A. R., & Carleton, R. A. (1993). Education and risk factors for coronary heart disease: Results from a New England community, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 9(6), 365–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Rimal, R., & Flora, J. A. (1994). Psychological and familial influences on children’s dietary behavior: Perspectives from a health information campaign. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sydney, Australia.Google Scholar
  135. Roberts, B. B., & Thorsheim, H. I. (1987). A partnership approach to consultation: The process and results of a major primary prevention field experiment. In The Ecology of Prevention [Special Issue], Prevention in Human Services, 4, 151–186.Google Scholar
  136. Rogers, E. M. (1983). Diffusion of innovations (3rd ed) New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  137. Rogers, E. M., Dearing, J. W., & Chang, S. (1991). AIDS in the 1980s: The agenda-setting process for a public issue. Journalism Monographs No. 126. Columbia, SC: Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.Google Scholar
  138. Rossi, S. R., Rossi, J. S., Rossi-DelPrete, L. M., Prochaska, J. O., Banspach, S. W., & Carleton, R. A. (1994). A processes of change model for weight control for participants in community-based weight loss programs, International Journal of the Addictions, 29, 161–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Rothman, J. (1979). Three models of community organization practice, their mobilizing and phasing. In F. M. Cox, J. L. Erlich, J. Rothman, & J. E. Tropman (Eds.), Strategies of community organization (3rd ed.) (pp. 25–45). Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock.Google Scholar
  140. Rothman, J., & Brown, E. R. (1989). Indicators of societal action to promote social health. In S. B. Kar (Ed.), Health promotion indicators and actions (pp. 202–220). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  141. Salina, D., Jason, L. A., Hedeker, D., Kaufman, J., Lesondak, L., McMahon, S. D., Taylor, S., & Kimball, P. (1994). A follow-up of a media-based, worksite smoking cessation program, American Journal of Community Psychology, 22, 257–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Sallis, J. F., & Nader, P. R. (1988). Family determinants of health behaviors. In D. S. Gochman (Ed.), Health behavior: Emerging research perspectives (pp. 107–124). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  143. Sanders, I. T. (1966). The community: An introduction to a social system (2nd ed.) New York: Ronald Press.Google Scholar
  144. Schooler, C., Flora, J. A., & Farquhar, J. W. (1993). Moving toward synergy: Media supplementation in the Stanford Five-City Project. The role of communication in health promotion (special issue), Communication Research, 20(4), 587–610.Google Scholar
  145. Schooler, C., Sundar, S. S., & Flora, J. A. (1996). Effects of the Stanford Five-City Project media advocacy program, Health Education Quarterly, 23(3), 346–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Shannon, B., Mullis, R. M., Pirie, P. L., et al. (1990). Promoting better nutrition in the grocery store using a game format: The Shop Smart Game format, Journal of Nutrition Education, 22, 183–188.Google Scholar
  147. Simons-Morton, B. G., Parcel, G. S., Baranowski, T., Forthofer, R., & O’Hara, N. M. (1991). Promoting physical activity and a healthful diet among children: Results of a school-based intervention study, American Journal of Public Health, 81, 986–991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Skinner, C. S., Strecher, V. J., & Hospers, H. (1994). Physicians’ recommendations for mammography: Do tailored messages make a difference? American Journal of Public Health, 84, 43–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Slater, M., & Flora, J. A. (1991). Health lifestyles: Audience segmentation for public health interventions, Health Education Quarterly, 18, 221–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Sorensen, G., Glasgow, R. E., & Corbett, K. (1990). Involving work sites and other organizations. In N. Bracht (Ed.), Health promotion at the community level (pp. 158–184). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  151. Sorensen, G., Rigotti, N., Rosen, A., &Pinney, J. (in press). The effects of a work-site nonsmoking policy: Evidence for increased cessation. American Journal of Public Health.Google Scholar
  152. Stunkard, A. J., Cohen, R. Y., & Felix, M. R. J. (1989). Weight loss competitions at the worksite: How they work and how well, Preventive Medicine, 18, 460–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Stunkard, A. J., Felix, M. R. J., Yopp, P., & Cohen, R. Y. (1985). Mobilizing a community to promote health: The Pennsylvania County Health Improvement Program (CHIP). In J. C. Rosen & L. J. Solomon (Eds.), Prevention in health psychology (pp. 143–190). Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.Google Scholar
  154. Thomas, S. B., Quinn, S. C., Billingsley, A., & Caldwell, C. (1994). The characteristics of northern black churches with community health outreach programs, American Journal of Public Health, 84, 575–579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Thompson, B., & Kinne, S. (1990). Social change theory: Applications to community health. In N. Bracht (Ed.), Health promotion at the community level (pp. 45–65). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  156. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1989). Churches as an avenue to high blood pressure control. NIH Publication No. 87-2725. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  157. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1991). Healthy people 2000: National health promotion and disease prevention objectives. DHHS Publication No. PHS 91-50212. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  158. Wallack, L., Dorfman, L., Jernigan, D., & Themba, M. (1993). Media advocacy and public health: Power for prevention. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  159. Warnecke, R. B., Langenberg, P., Wong, S. C., Flay, B. R., & Cook, T. D. (1992). The second Chicago televised smoking cessation program: A 24-month follow-up, American Journal of Public Health, 82, 835–840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Warren, R. I. (1972). The community in America. Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  161. Wechsler, H., Levine, S., Idelson, R. K., Rohman, M., & Taylor, J. O. (1982). The physician’s role in health promotion: A survey of primary-care practitioners, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, 308, 97–98.Google Scholar
  162. Weinstein, A. (1987). Market segmentation. Chicago: Probus.Google Scholar
  163. Wiist, W. H., & Flack, J. M. (1990). A church-based cholesterol education program, Public Health Reports, 105, 381–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Wilbur, C. S., Zifferblatt, S. M., Pinsky, J. L., & Zifferblatt, S. (1981). Healthy vending: A cooperative pilot research program to stimulate good health in the marketplace, Preventive Medicine, 10, 85–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Winkleby, M. A., Flora, J. A., & Kraemer, H. C. (1994). Predictors of change during a community-based disease intervention program, American Journal of Public Health, 84, 767–772.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Winkleby, M. A., Fortmann, S. P., & Rockhill, B. (1992). Trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors by educational level: The Stanford Five-City Project, Preventive Medicine, 21(5), 592–601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Worden, J. K., Flynn, B. S., Merrill, D. G., Waller, J. A., & Haugh, L. D. (1989). Preventing alcohol-impaired driving through community self-regulation training, American Journal of Public Health, 79, 287–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Caroline Schooler
    • 1
  • June A. Flora
    • 1
  1. 1.Stanford Center for Research in Disease PreventionStanford University School of MedicinePalo AltoUSA

Personalised recommendations