Introduction: From Innovation to Change

  • Sheila Tobias
  • Jacqueline Raphael
Part of the Innovations in Science Education and Technology book series (ISET, volume 2)


We asked a number of colleagues to comment on the difficulties involved in moving the exam issue from the realm of innovation to that of systemic change. Following are comments by Herbert Lin, Mary Nakhleh, Susan Nurrenbern, and Arthur Ellis


Instructional Practice Final Exam Hide Curriculum Oral Exam Exam Question 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    R. J. Osborne and M. C. Witrock, “Learning Science: A Generative Process,” Science in Education, 67, (1983): 489–508;.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. von Glasersfeld, “Knowing without Metaphysics: Aspects of the Radical Constructivist Position,” in F. Steier, Ed., Research and Reflexivity (Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1991).Google Scholar
  3. 2.
    S. Kemmis and R. McTaggart, The Action Research Planner, 3rd ed. (Victoria, Australia: Deakin University Press, 1990).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sheila Tobias
    • 1
  • Jacqueline Raphael
    • 1
  1. 1.California State UniversityCarsonUSA

Personalised recommendations