Hypercalcemia in Malignancy

  • Avi I. Einzig


Acute metabolic abnormalities associated with cancer that require urgent treatment may be important causes of symptoms and may constitute a more immediate threat to life than the cancer itself. Treatment of the metabolic complication may save the patient, and once the complication is treated, other appropriate cancer therapy may be undertaken. Hypercalcemia is probably the most frequently encountered of the acute metabolic problems in oncology.


Serum Calcium Primary Hyperparathyroidism Salmon Calcitonin Increase Bone Resorption Urinary Calcium Excretion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Mundy GR, Martin TJ: The hypercalcemia of malignancy: Pathogenesis and management. Metabolism 31 (12): 1247–1277, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Davis HL Jr, Wiseley AN, Ramirez G, et al: Hypercalcemia complicating breast cancer: Clinical features and management. Oncology 28: 126–137, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bender RA, Hansen H: Hypercalcemia in bronchogenic carcinoma: A prospective study of 200 patients. Ann Intern Med 80: 205–208, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Stephens RL, Hansen HH, Muggia FM: Hypercalcemia in epidermoid tumors of the head and neck and esophagus. Cancer 31: 1487–1491, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kennedy BJ, Tibbetts DM, Nathanson IT, et al: Hypercalcemia, a complication of hormone therapy of advanced breast cancer. Cancer Res. 13: 445–459, 1963.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chopra D, Clerkin EP: Hypercalcemia and malignant disease. Med Clin North Am 59: 441–447, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Skiner PT, Harris WS, Weissler AM: Effects of acute changes in serum calcium levels on the systolic time intervals in man. Am J Cardiol 24: 42–48, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Besarab A, Caro JF: Mechanisms of hypercalcemia in malignancy. Cancer 41: 2276–2285, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Skrabanek P, McPortlin J, Powell D: Tumor hypercalcemia and “ectopie hyperparathyroidisms. ” Medicine (Baltimore) 59: 262–282, 1980.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Heath DA: Hypercalcemia and malignancy. Ann Clin Biochem 13: 555–560, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Seyberth HW, Hubbard WC, Oelz O, et al: Prostaglandin-mediated hypercalcemia in the VX2 carcinoma bearing rabbit. Prostaglandins 14: 319–331, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tashyian AH Jr, Voelhel EF, Levine L: Effects of hydrocortisone on the hypercalcemia and plasma levels of 13,14-dihydro-l5-ketoprostaglandin E2 in mice bearing the HSDM fibrosarcoma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 74: 199–207, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Seyberth HW, Segre GV, Morgan JL, et al: Prostaglandins as mediators of hypercalcemia associated with certain types of cancer. N Engl J Med 293: 1278–1283, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Horton JE, Raisz LG, Simmons HA, et al: Bone resorbing activity in supernatant fluid for cultured human peripheral blood leukocytes. Science 177: 793–795, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Raisz LG, Luben RA, Mundy GR, et al: Effect of osteoclast activating factor from human leukocytes on bone metabolism. J Clin Invest 56: 408–413, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Benson RC Jr, Riggs L, Pickard BM, et al: Immunoreactive forms of circulating parathyroid hormone in primary and ectopie hyperparathyroidism. J Clin Invest 54: 175–181, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nordin BEC, Peacock M: Role of kidney in regulation of plasma-calcium. Lancet 2: 1280–1282, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Krone SM, Harris ED Jr, Singer FR, et al: Acute effects of calcitonin on bone formation in man. Metabolism 22: 51–58, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vaughn CB, Vaitkericuis K: The effects of calcitonin in hypercalcemia in patients with malignancy. Cancer 34: 1268–1271, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lazar MZ, Rosenberg LE: Mechanisms of adrenal steroid reversal of hypercalcemia in multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med 270: 749–755, 1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Myers WPL: Cortisone in the treatment of hypercalcemia in neoplastic disease. Cancer 11: 83–88, 1958.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stewart AF: Therapy of malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Ann J Med 74: 475–480, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Muggia FM, Heinemann HO: Hypercalcemia associated with neoplastic disease. Arch Intern Med 73: 281–290, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Binstock ML, Mundy GR: Effects of calcitonin and glucorticoids in combination on the hypercalcemia of malignancy. Ann Intern Med 93: 269–272, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Percia CP, Gubisch NJ, Walter J, et al: Mithramycin treatment of hypercalcemia. Cancer 25: 389–394, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fulmer DH, Dimich AB, Rothschild EO, et al: Treatment of hypercalcemia: Comparison of intravenously administered phosphate, sulfate, and hydrocortisone. Arch Intern Med 129: 923–930, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Goldsmith RS, Ingbar SH: Inorganic phosphate treatment of hypercalcemia of diverse etiologies. N Engl J Med 274: 1–7, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Carey RW, Schmitt GW, Kopald HH, et al: Massive extraskeletal calcification during phosphate treatment of hypercalcemia. Arch Intern Med 122: 150–155, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Avi I. Einzig
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of OncologyAlbert Einstein College of Medicine/Montefiore Medical CenterBronxUSA

Personalised recommendations