Physics in one dimension (1D) has always been of theoretical interest—the equations are easier to solve. Only in especially simple cases can the variables be separated in the three-dimensional (3D) partial differential equation describing the behavior of the spins. In recent years solids have been discovered where the atoms are arranged in chains which are well separted from neighboring chains, and this has catalyzed both experimental and theoretical work on one-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional physics. 1D solids may show unusual behavior in their mechanical, electrical, or magnetic properties. In some systems (e.g., FeCl2·2H2O) the bonding between the chains is much weaker than within each chain and the crystals tend to break up into fibers when handled. Asbestos is another familiar material of this kind. In others the electrical conductivity is larger along the chain direction while they are practically insulators perpendicular to the chains. In some magnetic crystals coupling between magnetic ions is much stronger along than between the chains.
KeywordsSpin Wave Hyperfine Field Anisotropy Field Solid State Phys Sublattice Magnetization
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