Isosmotic Volume Regulation by Human Lymphocytes

  • William Negendank
  • Calvin Shaller


The conventional assumptions in cell physiology, and specifically in the membrane-osmotic pump theory, are that cellular water and ions exist primarily in a physical state like that of a dilute aqueous solution, that the macroscopic concentration gradients of ions mirror true chemical or electrochemical activity gradients, that fixed charges on intracellular macromolecules require balancing by counter-ions that tend to follow a Donnan equilibrium, and that the outwardly-directed Na pump is required to maintain normal cellular volume against the forces in the Donnan equilibrium that tend to produce an excessive osmotic pressure. These concepts have been crystallized in terms of the “pump-leak, double-Donnan” formulations of the maintenance of cellular volume.


Human Lymphocyte External Medium Donnan Ratio Hypotonic Medium Cellular Water 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Negendank
    • 1
  • Calvin Shaller
    • 1
  1. 1.Hematology-Oncology Section, Department of MedicineHospital of the University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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