Stress Inoculation Training for Social Anxiety, with Emphasis on Dating Anxiety

  • Matt E. Jaremko

Abstract

The last decade has seen an increasing concern with the assessment and treatment of social anxiety (Arkowitz, 1977; Curran, 1977; Rehm & Marston, 1968). A major impetus for this increasing interest has been the recognition that social anxiety represents a problem of considerable daily concern to individuals (Borkovec, Stone, O’Brien, & Kaloupek, 1974). Such problems as shyness, lack of assertion, dating anxiety, and fear of others represent the most important referral source in university counseling services (Orr & Mitchell, 1975) while at the same time representing a major concern of clinically referred populations (Kanter & Goldfried, 1979). When speaking of social anxiety, it is important to note that this construct refers to a continuum from shyness to the extreme degree of social phobia perhaps evident in the behavior of an agoraphobic. The importance of social anxiety reduction programs will no doubt increase in the future as community-oriented outreach programs attempt to meet the needs of problems in living (Barton & Sanborn, 1977). For example, a significant percentage of college campuses already offer outreach programs that attempt to deal with social anxiety (Morrill & Oettuig, 1978). This chapter will review previous work on the assessment and reduction of social anxiety with specific emphasis on dating anxiety. Attention will be paid to presenting and evaluating various treatment approaches. In particular, the chapter will focus on treatment programs that view social situations as stressful events and that utilize stress prevention and management tehniques to deal with the troublesome aspects of social interactions.

Keywords

Social Skill Social Anxiety Social Situation Social Competence Cognitive Restructuring 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arkowitz, H. Measurement and modification of minimal dating behavior. In M. Hersen, R. M. Eisler, & P. M. Miller (Eds), Progress in behavior modification (Vol. 5). New York: Academic Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  2. Arkowitz, H., Lichtenstein, B., McGovern, K., & Hines, P. The behavioral assessment of social competence in males. Behavior Therapy, 1975, 6, 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 1977, 84, 191–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barton, W., & Sanborn, C. An assessment of the community mental health movement. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1977.Google Scholar
  5. Bauer, R. M., & Craighead, W. E. Psychophysiological responses to the imagination of fearful and neutral situations. Behavior Therapy, 1979, 10, 389–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., & Kovacs, M. Individual treatment manual for cognitive/behavioral psychotherapy of depression. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1976.Google Scholar
  7. Bernstein, D. A., & Borkovec, T. D. Progressive relaxation training: A manual for the helping professions. Champaign, Ill.: Research Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  8. Borkovec, T. D., Fleischmann, D. G., & Caputo, J. A. The measurement of social anxiety in an analogue social situation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1973, 41, 157–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Borkovec, T. D., Stone, N. M., O’Brien, G. T., & Kaloupek, D. G. Evaluation of a clinically relevant target behavior for analog outcome research. Behavior Therapy, 1974, 5, 503–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Borkovec, T. D., Wall, R. L., & Stone, N. M. False physiological feedback and the maintenance of speech anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1974, 83, 164–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cacioppo, J. T., Glass, C. R., & Merluzzi, T. V. Self-statements and self-evaluations: A cognitive-response analysis of social anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1979, 3, 249–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Christensen, A., & Arkowitz, H. Preliminary report on practice dating and feedback as treatment for college dating problems. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1974, 21, 92–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Curran, J. P. Social skills training and systematic desensitization in reducing dating anxiety. Behavior Research and Therapy, 1975, 13, 65–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Curran, J. P. Skills training as an approach to the treatment of heterosexual-social anxiety: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 1977, 84, 140–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Curran, J. P., & Gilbert, F. S. A test of the relative effectiveness of a systematic desensitization program and an interpersonal skills training program with date anxious subjects. Behavior Therapy, 1975, 6, 510–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Curran, J. P., Gilbert, F. S., & Little, L. M. A comparison between behavior replication training and sensitivity training approaches to heterosexual dating anxiety. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1976, 23, 190–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Curran, J. P., Little, L. M., & Gilbert, F. S. Reactivity of males of differing heterosexual social anxiety to female approach and nonapproach cue and conditions. Behavior Therapy, 1978, 9, 961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Elder, J. P., Edelstein, B., Fremouw, W., Lively, L., Walker, J., & Womeldorf, J. A comparison of response acquisition and cognitive restructuring in the enhancement of social competence in college freshmen. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Chicago, 1978.Google Scholar
  19. Emmelkamp, P. M. G., Kuipers, A. C. M., & Eggeraat, J. B. Cognitive modification versus prolonged exposure in vivo: A comparison with agoraphobics. Behavior Research and Therapy, 1978, 16, 33–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Endler, N. S., Hunt, J. M., & Rosenstein, A. J. An S-R inventory of anxiousness. Psychological Monographs, 1962, 76(17, Whole No. 536).Google Scholar
  21. Farrell, A. D., Mariotto, M. H., Conger, A. J., Curran, J. P., & Wallander, J. L. Self-ratings of heterosexual social anxiety and skills: A generalizability study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1979, 47, 164–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fiedler, D., & Beach, L. R. On the decision to be assertive. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1978, 46, 537–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fischetti, M., Curran, J. P., & Weissberg, H. W. Sense of timing: A skill deficit in hetero-sexual-socially anxious males. Behavior Modification, 1977, 1, 179–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fremouw, W. J., & Harmatz, M. A helper model for behavioral treatment of speech anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1975, 43, 652–660.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Frisch, M. B., Atsaides, J. P., & Elliott, C. H. Social skills and cognitive stress management program: Therapist manual. Kansas City, Mo.: Veterans Administration Medical Center, 1977.Google Scholar
  26. Frisch, M. B., Elliott, C. H., Atsaides, J. P., Salva, D. M., & Denney, D. R. Social skills and stress management training to enhance interpersonal competencies. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York, 1979.Google Scholar
  27. Gambrill, E. D., & Richey, C. A. An assertion inventory for use in assessment and research. Behavior Therapy, 1975, 6, 550–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Garfield, S. L. Research on client variables in psychotherapy. In A. E. Bergin & S. L. Garfield (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change. New York: Wiley, 1971.Google Scholar
  29. Geary, J. M., & Goldman, M. S. Behavioral treatment of heterosexual social anxiety: A factorial investigation. Behavior Therapy, 1978, 8, 971–972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Glass, C., Gottman, J., & Shmurak, S. Response-acquisition and cognitive self-statement modification approaches to dating skills training. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1976, 23, 520–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Goldfried, M. R. Systematic desensitization as training in self-control. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1971, 37, 228–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Goldfried, M. R., & Sobocinski, D. The effect of irrational beliefs on emotional arousal. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1975, 43, 504–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Goldfried, M. R., Decenteceo, E. T., & Weinberg, L. Systematic rational restructuring as a self-control technique. Behavior Therapy, 1974, 5, 247–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Goldstein, D. S., Ross, R. S., & Brady, J. V. Biofeedback heart rate training during exercise. Biofeedback and Self Regulation, 1977, 2, 107–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Greenwald, D. P. The behavioral assessment of differences in social skills and social anxiety in female college students. Behavior Therapy, 1977, 8, 925–937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Greist, J. H., Marks, I. M., Berlin, F., Gournay, K., & Noshirvani, H. Avoidance versus confrontation of fear. Behavior Therapy, 1980, 11, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Harvey, J. R. Diaphragmatic breathing: A practical technique for breath control. The Behavior Therapist, 1978, 1, 13–14.Google Scholar
  38. Hersen, M., & Bellack, A. S. Assessment of social skills. In A. R. Ciminero, K. S. Calhoun, & H. E. Adams (Eds.), Handbook of behavior assessment. New York: Wiley, 1977.Google Scholar
  39. Hovland, C. I., & Janis, I. L. (Eds.). Yale studies in attitude and communication: Personality and persuadability. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1959.Google Scholar
  40. Jaremko, M. E. A component analysis of stress inoculation: Review and prospectus. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1979, 3, 35–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jaremko, M. E. Cognitive-behavior reflections on some dimensions of personality. Washington, D. C.: University Press of America, 1980. (a).Google Scholar
  42. Jaremko, M. E. The application of signal detection theory to anxiety perception. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 1980, 11, 112. (b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jaremko, M. E., Myers, E., & Jaremko, L. L. A comparison of social skills training and stress inoculation training for treating dating anxiety. Paper presented at the meeting of the Southwestern Psychological Association, San Antonio, 1979.Google Scholar
  44. Jaremko, M. E., Hadfield, R., & Walker, W. E. Contribution of an educational phase to stress inoculation of speech anxiety. Perceptual Motor and Skills, 1980, 50, 495–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jaremko, M. E., Myers, E., & Daner, S. Differences in daters: Effects of sex, dating frequency, and dating frequency of partner. Unpublished manuscript, University of Mississippi, 1980.Google Scholar
  46. Jencks, B. Exercise manual for J. H. Schults’s standard autogenic training. Salt Lake City: Alphagraphics, 1973.Google Scholar
  47. Jones, R. G. A factored measure of Ellis’ irrational belief system, with personality and maladjustment correlates. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas Technological College, 1968.Google Scholar
  48. Kallman, W. M., & Feuerstein, M. Psychophysiological procedures. In A. R. Cimenero, K. S. Calhoun, & H. E. Adams (Eds.), Handbook of behavioral assessment. New York: Wiley, 1977.Google Scholar
  49. Kanter, N., & Goldfried, M. R. Relative effectiveness of rationale restructuring and self-control desensitization in the reduction of interpersonal anxiety. Behavior Therapy, 1979, 10, 472–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kazdin, A. E. Effects of covert modeling and model reinforcement on assertive behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1974, 83, 240–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kazdin, A. E. Covert modeling, imagery assessement, and assertive behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1975, 48, 716–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Keane, T. M., & Lisman, S. A. Behavioral, cognitive, and physiological effects of alcohol on heterosocial anxiety. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Cicago, 1978.Google Scholar
  53. Kendall, P., & Korgeski, G. Assessment and cognitive-behavioral interventions. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1979, 3, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Klaus, D., Hersen, M., & Bellack, A. S. Survey of dating habits of male and female college students: A necessary precursor to measurement and modification. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1977, 33, 369–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kupke, T. E., Calhoun, K. S., & Hobbs, S. A. Selection of heterosocial skills. II. Experimental validity. Behavior Therapy, 1979, 10, 336–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lacey, J. I. Somatic response patterning and stress: Some revisions of the activation theory. In M.H. Appley & R. Trumbull (Eds.), Psychological stress. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1967.Google Scholar
  57. Lacey, J. I., & Lacey, B. C. Some autonomic-CNS interrelationships. In P. Black (Ed.), Psychological correlates of emotion. New York: Academic Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  58. Lang, P. J. The application of psychological methods to the study of pyschotherapy and behavior modification. In A. E. Bergin & S. L. Garfield (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change: An empirical analysis. New York: Wiley, 1971.Google Scholar
  59. Lazarus, A. A. Behavior therapy and beyond. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972.Google Scholar
  60. Lazarus, R., Kanner, A., & Folkman, S. Emotions: A cognitive-phenomenological analysis. In R. Plutchik & H. Kellerman (Eds.), Theories of emotion. New York: Academic Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  61. Levenson, R. W., & Gottman, J. M. Toward the assessment of social competence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1978, 49, 453–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Linehan, M. M., Goldfried, M. R., & Goldfried, A. P. Assertion therapy: Skill training or cognitive restructuring. Behavior Therapy, 1980, 11, 59–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lipton, D. N., & Nelson, R. O. The contribution of initiation behaviors to dating frequency. Behavior Therapy, 1980, 11, 59–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. MacDonald, M. L., Lindquist, C. U., Kramer, J. A., McGrath, R. A., & Rhyne, L. L. Social skills training: The effects of behavior rehearsal in groups on dating skills. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1975, 22, 224–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mahoney, M. J. Cognition and behavior modification. Cambridge, Ma.: Ballinger, 1974.Google Scholar
  66. Mahoney, M. J. Psychotherapy and the structure of personal revolutions. In M. J. Mahoney (Ed.), Psychotherapy process. New York: Plenum Press, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. May, J. R. Psychophysiology of self-regulated phobic thoughts. Behavior Therapy, 1977, 8, 150–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Meichenbaum, D. Cognitive modification of test anxious college students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1972, 29, 370–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Meichenbaum, D. Cognitive-behavior modification: An integrative approach. New York: Plenum Press, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Meichenbaum, D., & Butler, L. Cognitive ethology: Assessing the streams of cognition and emotion. In K. Blankstein, P. Pliner, & J. Polivy (Eds.), Advances in the study of emotion communication and affect (Vol. 6). Assessment and modification of emotional behavior. New York: Plenum Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  71. Meichenbaum, D., & Cameron, R. Stress inoculation: A skills training approach to anxiety management. Unpublished manuscript, University of Waterloo, 1973.Google Scholar
  72. Meichenbaum, D., & Turk, D. The cognitive-behavioral management of anxiety, fear, and pain. In P. O. Davidson (Ed.), The behavioral management of anxiety, depression, and pain. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1976.Google Scholar
  73. Meichenbaum, D., Gilmore, B., Fedoravicius, A. Group thought vs. group desensitization in treating speech anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1971, 36, 410–421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Meichenbaum, D., Butler, L., & Joseph, L. G. Toward a conceptual model of social competence. In J. Wine & M. Smye (Eds.), The identification and enhancement of social competence. Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere Publications, 1982.Google Scholar
  75. Melnick, J. A comparison of replication techniques in the modification of minimal dating behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1973, 81, 51–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mitchell, K. R., & Orr, F. E. Heterosexual social competence, anxiety, avoidance, and self-judged physical attractiveness. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1976, 43, 553–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Morrill, W., & Oettuig, E. Outreach programs in college counseling. Journal of College Student Personnel, 1978, 19(4), 51–54.Google Scholar
  78. Orr, F. E., & Mitchell, K. R. The problem of social isolation in the university community. Paper presented at the Sydney Metropolitan Tertiary Counselor’s Conference. University of Wollongong, Wollongong, N.S.W., Australia, 1975.Google Scholar
  79. Orr, F. E., Mitchell, K. R., & Hall, R. G. Effects of reduction in social anxiety on behavior in heterosexual situations. Australian Psychologist, 1975, 10, 139–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pilkonis, P. A. The behavioral consequences of shyness. Journal of Personality, 1977, 45, 596–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rachman, S. The passing of the two-stage theory of fear and avoidance: Fresh possibilities. Behavior Research and Therapy, 1976, 14, 125–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rathjen, D. P., Rathjen, E. D., & Hiniker, A. A cognitive analysis of social performance: Implications for assessment and treatment. In J. P. Foreyt & D. P. Rathjen (Eds.), Cognitive behavior therapy. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  83. Rehm, L. A self-control model of depression. Behavior Therapy, 1977, 8, 787–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rehm, L. P., & Marston, A. R. Reduction of social anxiety through modification of self-reinforcement: An instigation therapy technique. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1968, 32, 565–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Schwartz, R., & Gottman, J. Toward a task analysis of assertive behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1976, 44, 901–920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Spielberger, C.D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. E. The state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) test manual for form X. Palo Alto, Calif.: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  87. Sutton-Simon, K., & Goldfried, M. R. Faulty thinking patterns in two types of anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1979, 3, 193–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Twentyman, G. T., & McFall, R. M. Behavioral training of social skills in shy males. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1975, 43, 384–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Watson, D., & Friend, R. Measurement of social-evaluative anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1969, 33, 448–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wheeler, L., & Nezlek, J. Sex differences in social participation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1977, 35, 742–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matt E. Jaremko
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MississippiUniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations