Advertisement

Stress Management for Rape Victims

  • Lois J. Veronen
  • Dean G. Kilpatrick

Abstract

Our major objective in this chapter is to describe stress management procedures we have developed to be used with rape victims. We will discuss issues involved in the definition of rape, in the estimation of its incidence, and in the investigation of rape-related problems. We will briefly describe the Sexual Assault Research Project and review our findings and those of others regarding the aftermath of rape. Having substantiated our contention that rape is a stressful event that produces substantial, long-lasting problems for many of its victims, we will review other treatment procedures for rape-induced problems, describe our stress inoculation procedure, present assessment data on victims requesting treatment, discuss preliminary results regarding treatment efficacy, and provide information about the use of stress inoculation training with a victim. The chapter will conclude with some observations and speculations about general treatment issues.

Keywords

Conditioned Stimulus Stress Management Coping Skill Fear Response Rape Victim 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bart, P. B., & O’Brien, P. How to say no to Storaska and survive: Rape avoidance strategies. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Sociological Association, New York, August 1980.Google Scholar
  2. Beck, A. T. Depression: Causes and treatment. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  3. Beck, A. T., Rush, J., Shaw, B, & Emery, G. Cognitive therapy of depression: A treatment manual. Philadelphia: Aaron T. Beck, M. D., 1978.Google Scholar
  4. Becker, J. V. Sexual dysfunctions in rape victims. National Center for the Prevention and Control of Rape, NIMH, Grant No. RO1 MH32982, 9/25/79-8/31/82.Google Scholar
  5. Blanchard, E. B., & Abel, G. An experimental case study of the biofeedback treatment of a rape-induced psychophysiological cardiovascular disorder. Behavior Therapy, 1976, 7, 113–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brownmiller, S. Against our will. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1975.Google Scholar
  7. Burgess, A. W., & Holmstrom, L. L. Rape: Victims of crisis. Bowie, Md.: Robert J. Brady Co., 1974.Google Scholar
  8. Burt, M. R. Cultural myths and supports for rape. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, 38, 217–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Calhoun, K. S., Atkeson, B. M., & Resick, P. A. Incidence and patterns of depression in rape victims. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, San Francisco, December 1979.Google Scholar
  10. Chappell, D. Forcible rape and the criminal justice system: Surveying present practices and projecting future trends. In M. J. Walker & S. L. Brodsky (Eds.), Sexual assault: The victim and the rapist. Lexington, Mass.: D. C. Heath, 1976.Google Scholar
  11. Derogatis, L. R. SCL-90-R manual. Author: Clinical Psychometrics Research Unit, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 1977.Google Scholar
  12. Factor, M. A woman’s psychological reaction to attempted rape. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 1954, 23, 243–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Feldman-Summers, S., Gordon, P. E., & Meagher, J. R. The impact of rape on sexual satisfaction. Journal of Ab normal Psychology, 1979, 88(1), 101–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Forman, B. Cognitive modification of obsessive thinking in a rape victim: A preliminary study. Psychological Reports, 1980, 47, 819–822.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Frank, E. Cognitive therapy in the treatment of rape victims. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, San Francisco, December 1979.Google Scholar
  16. Frank, E., & Turner, S. M. The rape victim: Her response and treatment. National Center for the Prevention and Control of Rape, NIMH, Grant No. RO1 MH29692, 4/1/78-3/31/81.Google Scholar
  17. Frank, E., Turner, S. M., & Duffy, B. Depressive symptoms in rape victims. Journal of Affective Disorders, 1979, 1 269–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jacobson, E. Progressive relaxation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1938.Google Scholar
  19. Janoff-Bulman, R. Rape victims’ behavioral/characterological self-blame. National Center for the Prevention and Control of Rape, NIMH, Grant No. RO3 MH33402, 8/1/79-7/31/80.Google Scholar
  20. Kilpatrick, D. G. The scientific study of rape: A clinical research perspective. In R. Green & J. Wiener (Eds.), Methodology in sex research. Washington, D.C.: DHHS Publication No. (ADM) 81-766, 1981.Google Scholar
  21. Kilpatrick, D. G., & Veronen, L. J. Treatment for rape-related problems: Crisis intervention is not enough. In L. H. Cohen, W. Claiborn, & G. Specter (Eds.), Crisis intervention. New York: Human Sciences Press, in press.Google Scholar
  22. Kilpatrick, D. G., Veronen, L. J., & Resick, P. A. Responses to rape: Behavioral perspectives and treatment approaches. Scandinavian Journal of Behaviour Therapy, 1977, 6, 85.Google Scholar
  23. Kilpatrick, D. G., Veronen, L. J., & Resick, P. A. The aftermath of rape: Recent empirical findings. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1979, 49(4), 658–669.(a).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kilpatrick, D. G., Veronen, L. J., & Resick, P. A. Assessment of the aftermath of rape: Changing patterns of fear. Journal of Behavioral Assessment, 1979, 1(2), 133–I48.(b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kilpatrick, D. G., Resick, P. A., & Veronen, L. J. Effects of a rape experience: A longitudinal study. Journal of Social Issues, 1981, 37(4), 105–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kilpatrick, D. G., Veronen, L. J., & Resick, P. A. Psychological sequelae to rape: Assessment and treatment strateiges. In D. M. Doleys, R. L. Meredith, & A. R. Ciminero (Eds.), Behavioral medicine: Assessment and treatment strategies. New York: Plenum Press, 1982.Google Scholar
  27. Lang, P. J. Fear reduction and fear behavior: Problems in treating a construct. Research in Psychotherapy, 1968, 3, 90–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McNair, D., Lorr, M., & Droppleman, L. Manual, profile of mood states. San Diego: Education & Industrial Testing Service, 1971.Google Scholar
  29. Meichenbaum, D. Cognitive behavior modification. Morristown, N.J.: General Learning Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  30. Notman, M. T., & Nadelson, C. C. The rape victim: Psychodynamic considerations. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1976, 133, 408–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. E. The state-trait anxiety inventory. Palo Alto, Calif.: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  32. Turner, S. Systematic desensitization of fears and anxiety in rape victims. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, San Francisco, December 1979.Google Scholar
  33. Veronen, L. J. Fear response of rape victims (Doctoral dissertation, North Texas State University, 1977). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1978, 38(7). (University Microfilms No. TSZ 77-29, 577.).Google Scholar
  34. Veronen, L. J., & Kilpatrick, D. G. Self-reported fears of rape victims: A preliminary investigation. Behavior Modification, 1980, 4(3), 383–396.(a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Veronen, L. J., & Kilpatrick, D. G. The response to rape: The impact of rape on self-esteem. Paper presented at the meeting of the Southwestern Psychological Association, Oklahoma City, April 1980.(b).Google Scholar
  36. Veronen, L. J., & Kilpatrick, D. G. Transcending the effects of rape: Towards an integration of behavioral and feminist perspectives. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Sociological Association, New York, August 1980.(c).Google Scholar
  37. Veronen, L. J., & Kilpatrick, D. G. Rape: A precursor of change. In E. J. Callahan & K.A. McCluskey (Eds.), Life span developmental psychology: Non-normative life events. New York: Academic Press, in press.Google Scholar
  38. Veronen, L. J., Kilpatrick, D. G., & Best, C. L. The invisible woman: Characteristics of the rape victim who does not participate in research. Paper presented at the meeting of the Southwestern Psychological Association, New Orleans, April 1978.Google Scholar
  39. Veronen, L. J., Kilpatrick, D. G., & Resick, P. A. Treatment of fear and anxiety in rape victims: Implications for the criminal justice system. In W.H. Parsonage (Ed.), Perspectives on victimology. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage, 1979.Google Scholar
  40. Werner, A. Rape: Interruption of the therapeutic process by external stress. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1972, 9(4), 349–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wolpe, J. Psychotherapy by reciprocal inhibition. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1958.Google Scholar
  42. Wortman, C. B., & Dintzer, L. Is an attributional analysis of the learned helplessness phenomenon viable?: A critique of the Abramson-Seligman-Teasdale reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1978, 87, 75–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lois J. Veronen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dean G. Kilpatrick
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA
  2. 2.People Against RapeCharlestonUSA

Personalised recommendations