Taurine Efflux from Brain Slices: Potassium-Evoked Release is Greater from Immature than Mature Brain Tissue

  • Pirjo Kontro
  • S. S. Oja
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 217)

Abstract

Taurine is a free amino acid abounding in all brain regions, being enriched in synaptic structures (14). The concentration of taurine is very high in the developing brain, decreasing towards adulthood, a pattern in striking contrast to that of other neuroactive amino acids, whose concentrations tend to increase during development (26). It has therefore been suggested that taurine may have a specific regulatory role in brain development (24,32). In order to shed light on the functions of taurine in the developing brain, we compared the mechanisms of spontaneous and potassium-stimulated taurine release from slices prepared from adult and immature brain tissue.

Keywords

Taurine Release Taurine Content Taurine Efflux Nipecotic Acid Basal Efflux 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Andersen, L., Sundman, L.-O., Lindén, I.-B., Kontro, P., and Oja, S.S., 1984, Synthesis and anticonvulsant properties of some 2-amino-ethanesulphonic acid (taurine) derivatives, J. Pharm. Sci., 73:106–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arias, C., and Tapia, R., 1986, Differential calcium dependence of γ-aminobutyric acid and acetylcholine release in mouse brain synaptosomes, J. Neurochem., 47: 396–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arias, C., Sitges, M., and Tapia, R., 1984, Stimulation of [3H]γ-aminobutyric acid release by calcium chelators in synaptosomes, J. Neurochem., 42: 1506–1514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Crain, S.M., 1977, “Neurophysiologic Studies in Tissue Culture”, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hille, B., 1968, Charges and potentials at the nerve surface. Divalent cations and pH. J. Gen. Physiol., 51: 221–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Holopainen, I., Kontro, P., and Oja, S.S., 1985, Release of preloaded taurine and hypotaurine from astrocytes in primary culture: stimulation by calcium-free media, Neurochem. Res., 10: 123–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Holopainen, I., Oja, S.S., Marnela, K.-M., and Kontro, P., 1986, Free amino acids of rat astrocytes in primary culture: changes during cell maturation, Int. J. Dev. Neurosci., 4: 493–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Huxtable, R.J., Laird, H.E., II, and Lippincott, S., 1979, The transport of taurine in the heart and the rapid depletion of tissue taurine content by guanidinoethyl sulfonate, J. Pharmac. Exp. Ther., 211: 465–471.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kontro, P., 1979, Components of taurine efflux in rat brain synaptosomes, Neuroscience, 4: 1745–1749.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kontro, P., 1984, Comparison of taurine, hypotaurine and β-alanine uptake in brain synaptosomal preparations from developing and adult mouse, Int. J. Dev. Neurosci., 2: 465–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kontro, P., and Oja, S.S. 1981, Hypotaurine transport in brain slices: comparison with taurine and GABA, Neurochem. Res., 6: 1179–1191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kontro, P., and Oja, S.S., 1986, Taurine and GABA release from developing mouse brain: effects of cations, Int. J. Dev. Neurosci., 4: S46–S47.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kontro, P., and Oja, S.S., 1987, Taurine and GABA binding in mouse brain: effects of freezing, washing and Triton X-100 treatment on membranes, Int. J. Neurosci., 4: S46–S47 in press.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kontro, P., Marnela, K.-M., and Oja, S.S., 1980, Free amino acids in the synaptosome and synaptic vesicle fractions of different bovine brain areas, Brain Res., 184: 129–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kontro, P., Linden, I.-B., Gothóni, G., and Oja, S.S., 1983, Novel anticonvulsant taurine derivatives, in: “Sulfur Amino Acids: Biochemical and Clinical Aspects”, H. Iwata, R.J. Huxtable, and K. Kuriyama, eds., Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 211–220.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kontro, P., Marnela, K.-M., and Oja, S.S., 1984, GABA, taurine and hypotaurine in developing mouse brain, Acta Physiol. Scand., “Suppl. 537: 71–74.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Korpi, E.R., and Oja, S.S., 1979, Efflux of phenylalanine from rat cerebral cortex slices as influenced by extra-and intracellular amino acids, J. Neurochem., 32: 789–796.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Korpi, E.R., and Oja, S.S., 1984, Comparison of two superfusion systems for study of neurotransmitter release from rat cerebral cortex slices, J. Neurochem., 43: 236–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Korpi, E.R., and Oja, S.S., 1984, Calcium chelators enhance the efflux of taurine from brain slices, Neuropharmacology, 23: 377–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Korpi, E.R., Kontro, P., Nieminen, K., Marnela, K.-M., and Oja, S.S., 1981, Spontaneous and depolarization-induced efflux of hypotaurine from mouse cerebral cortex slices: comparison with taurine and GABA, Life Sci., 29: 811–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Levi, G., 1984, Release of putative transmitter amino acids, in: “Handbook of Neurochemistry, 2nd edn, Vol. 6”, A. Lajtha, ed., Plenum Press, New York, pp. 463–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Levi, G., Gallo, V., and Raiteri, M. 1980, A reevaluation of veratridine as a tool for studying the depolarization-induced release of neurotranfimitters from nerve endings, Neurochem. Res., 5: 281–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ohkuma, S., Tomono, S., Tanaka, Y., Kuriyama, K., and Mukainaka, T., 1986, Development of taurine biosynthesising system in cerebral cortical neurons in primary culture, Int. J. Dev. Neurosci., 4: 383–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Oja, S.S., 1966, Postnatal changes in the concentration of nucleic acids, nucleotides and amino acids in the rat brain, Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn. A5, 125: 1–69.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Oja, S.S., and Kontro, P., 1983, Free amino acids in epilepsy: possible role of taurine, Acta Neurol. Scand. 67, Suppl. 93: 5–20.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Oja, S.S., Uusitalo, A.J., Vahvelainen, M.-L., and Piha, R.S., 1968, Changes in cerebral and hepatic amino acids in the rat and guinea pig during development, Brain Res., 11: 655–661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pin, J.-P., Weiss, S., Sebben, M., Kemp, D.E., and Bockaert, J., 1986, Release of endogenous amino acids from striatal neurons in primary culture, J. Neurochem., 47: 594–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Purpura, D.P., Shofer, R.J., and Scarff, T., 1965, Properties of synaptic activities and spike potentials of neurons in immature neocortex, J. Neurophysiol., 28: 925–942.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schramm, M., and Towart, R., 1985, Modulation of calcium channel function by drugs, Life Sci., 37: 1843–1860.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sedlacek, J., 1978, The development of supraspinal control of spontaneous motility in chick embryo, in: “Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 48, Maturation of the Nervous System”, M.A. Corner, R.E. Baker, N.E. van de Poll, D.F. Swaab, and H.B.M. Uylings, eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 367–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Snedecor, G.W., 1956, “Statistical Methods”, 5th edn, The Iowa State College Press, Ames, pp. 351–353.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sturman, J., and Gaull, G.E., 1975, Taurine in the brain and liver of the developing human and monkey, J. Neurochem., 25: 831–835.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vizi, E.S., 1984, Physiological role of cytoplasmic and non-synaptic release of transmitter, Neurochem. Int., 6: 435–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pirjo Kontro
    • 1
  • S. S. Oja
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical SciencesUniversity of TampereTampereFinland

Personalised recommendations