Genesis of Ferromanganese Deposits-Diagnostic Criteria for Recent and Old Deposits

  • Kurt Boström
Chapter
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 12)

Abstract

Marine iron manganese deposits show a greater chemical variability than was realized only 10 years ago. As a consequence correct conclusions regarding the genesis of a given deposit frequently require knowledge about several geochemical parameters and preferably about accumulation rates and spatial relations vis-a-vis e.g. spreading centers.

For old deposits the analogous interpretation is considerably more difficult, since evidence may be missing for a nearby spreading center in the past and since elevated accumulation rates may not be detectable. Hence petrographic and geochemical characteristics may be the only ones available for a genetic interpretation. I will here show that a combination of geochemical relations such as Fe/Ti — Al/(A1+Fe+Mn), Fe/Mn, Fe-Mn-(Co+Ni+Cu), U/Th and REE (rare earth element) data may yield conclusive genetic information.

Keywords

Accumulation Rate Spreading Center Hydrothermal Deposit Manganese Nodule Pelagic Sediment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arrhenius, G.O.S., and Bonatti, E., 1965. Neptunism and volcanism in the ocean. In Progress in Oceanography vol 3, M. Sears ed., Pergamon Press, New York, [-21.Google Scholar
  2. Bender, M.L., 1983. The manganese nodule program EOS, 64 (5) 42–43.Google Scholar
  3. Bender, M., Broecker, W., Gornitz, V., Middel, U., Kay, R., Sun, S.S., and Biscay, P., 1971. Geochemistry of three cores from the East Pacific Rise. Earth and Planetary Sci. Letters 12; 425–433.Google Scholar
  4. Bischoff, J.L., 1969. Red Sea geothermal brine deposits: their mineralogy, chemistry and genesis. In:Hot Brines and Recent Heavy Metal Deposits in the Red Sea E.T. Degens and D.A. Ross eds., Springer-Verlag, New York 368–401.Google Scholar
  5. Bischoff, J.L., and Piper, D.Z., 1979., eds, Marine Geology and Oceanography of the Pacific Manganese Nodule Province 842 p. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Bonatti, E., 1975. Metallogenesis at oceanic spreadingGoogle Scholar
  7. centers. In: Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences F.A. Donath, F.G. Stehli and G.W. Wetherill eds. Annual Reviews, Inc., Palo Alto, 401–431.Google Scholar
  8. Bonatti, E., 1983; Hydrothermal Metal Deposits from the Oceanic Rifts: a Classification. In: Hydrothermal Processes at seafloor spreading centers Y.A. Rona, K. Boström, L. Laubier and K. Smith, eds. NATO Conference series, Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bonatti, E., and Joensuu, 0., 1966. Deep Sea iron deposits from the South Pacific.Science, 154, 643–645.Google Scholar
  10. Bonatti, E., Fischer, D.E., Joensuu, O., Rydell, H.S., and Beyth, M.,1972 a. Iron-manganese-barium deposits from the Northern Afar Rift (Ethiopia). Econ. Geol. 67 717–730.Google Scholar
  11. Bonatti, E., Honnorez, J., Joensuu, O., and Rydell, H.S., 1972 b. Submarine iron deposits from the Mediterranean Sea. In: Symposium on the sedimentation in the Mediterranean Sea.VIII Internat.8edim. Congr., D.J. Stanley, ed., Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  12. Bonatti, E., Kraemer, T., and Rydell, H., 1972 c.Classification and genesis of submarine iron-manganese deposits. In: Ferromanganese deposits on the Ocean Floor, 149–161.Google Scholar
  13. D. Horn, ed., National Science Foundation, IDOE, Washington, D.C. Boström, K., 1970. Submarine volcanism as a source for iron. Earth and Planet Sci.: Letters, 9, 348–354.Google Scholar
  14. Boström, K., 1976. Particulate and dissolved matter as sources for pelagic sediments. Stockholm Contr. Geology 30:15–79.Google Scholar
  15. Boström, K., 1980. The origin of ferromanganoan active ridge sediments. In: Seafloor spreading Centers: Hydrothermal systems P.A. Rona and R.P. Lowell eds., Dowden. Hutchinson and Ross, Inc., Stroudsburg, 288–332.Google Scholar
  16. Boström, K., 1981. On the formation of magnetite-hematiteapatite “magmas” from metalliferous sediments at subduction zones. Stockh. Contrib. Geology 37, 21–42.Google Scholar
  17. Boström, K., and Peterson, M.N.A., 1966. Precipitates from hydrothermal exhalations on the East Pacific Rise. Econ. Geology 61, 1258–1265.Google Scholar
  18. Boström, K., and Peterson, M.N.A., 1969. Origin of aluminum-poor ferro-manganoan sediments in areas of high heat flow on the East Pacific Rise. Marine Geology 7, 427–447.Google Scholar
  19. Boström, K., Kraemer, T. and Gartner, S., 1973. Provenance and accumulation rates of opaline silica, Al, Ti, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Co in pelagic sediments. Chem. Geol. 11, 123–148.Google Scholar
  20. Boström, K., Joensuu, O., Valdés, S., Charm, W. and Glaccum, R., 1976. Geochemistry and origin of East Pacific sediments sampled during DSDP leg 34. In: Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, 34,559–574. Yeats et al., eds., U.S. Government. Print. Office, Washington.Google Scholar
  21. Boström, K., and Rydell, H., 1979. Geochemical behavior of U and Th during exhalative sedimentary processe. In: La Genese des nodules de manganese. 151–166.Google Scholar
  22. Colloq. Internat. CNRS No. 289, C. Lalou, ed., CNRS, Paris. Boström, K., Rydell, H. and Joensuu, 0., 1979. TA.ngban-An exhalative sedimentary deposit? Econ. Geol., 74.1 1002–1011.Google Scholar
  23. Boström, K., Wiborg, L. and Ingri, J., 1982. Geochemistry and origin of ferromanganese concretions in the Gulf of Bothnia. Marine Geology 50, 1–24.Google Scholar
  24. Boström, K. and Widenfalk, L., 1983. The origin of ironrich muds at the Kameni Islands, Santorini. Chem. Geol.(Accepted for publication )Google Scholar
  25. Breck, W.G., 1974. Redox levels in the sea. In: The Sea 5, E.D. Goldberg ed., Wiley Interscience, New York. 153–179.Google Scholar
  26. Brotzen, 0., 1955. Some microstructures in jasper from the Lângban mine. GFF, 77, 275–283.Google Scholar
  27. Calvert, S.E., and Price, N.B., 1970. Compositions of manganese nodules and manganese carbonates from Loch Fyne, Scotland. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 29, 215–233.Google Scholar
  28. Corliss, J.B., Dymond, J., Gordon, L.I., Edmond, J.M., von Herzen, R.P., Ballard, R.D., Green, K., Williams, D., Bainbridge, A., Crane, K. and van Andel, T.H., 1979.Google Scholar
  29. Submarine thermal springs on the Galapagos Rift. Science 203, 1073–1083.Google Scholar
  30. Cronan, D.S., 1980. Underwater Minerals. Academic Press, London. 362 p.Google Scholar
  31. Degens, E.T. and Ross, D.A., Eds., Hot Brines and Recent Heavy Metal Deposits in the Red Sea. Springer Verlag.Google Scholar
  32. Earney, F.C.F., 1980. Petroleum and Hard Minerals from the Sea. Edward Arnold, London, 291 p.Google Scholar
  33. Fleet, A.J., 1983. Hydrothermal and hydrogenous ferro-manganese deposits: Do they from a continuum? The rare earth element evidence. In: Hydrothermal processes at seafloor spreading centers, P.A. Rona, K. Boström, L. Laubier and K. Smith, eds. NATO Conference series, Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  34. Fomina, L.S., and Volkov, I.I., 1969. Rare earths in iron-manganese concretions of the Black Sea. Doki. Akad. Nauk SSSR 185, 188–191.Google Scholar
  35. Francheteau, J., Needham, H.D., Chouckroune, P., Juteau, T., Seguret, M., Ballard, R.D., Fox, P.J., Normark, W., Carranza, A., Cordoba, D., Guerrero, J., Rangin, C., Bougalt, H., Cambon, P. and Hekinian, R., 1979. Massive deep sea sulfide ore deposits discovered on the East Pacific Rise. Nature 277, 523–530.Google Scholar
  36. Glasby, G.P., 1977, ed., Marine Manganese Deposits. Elsevier Scientif. Publ. Co, Amsterdam. 523 p.Google Scholar
  37. Govett, G.J.S. and Govett, M.H., 1976. World Mineral Supplies - Assessment and perspective. Developments in Economic Geology, 3. Elsevierr Scientif. Publ. Co, Amsterdam, 472 p.Google Scholar
  38. Horn, D.R., 1972 ed., Ferromanganese Deposits on the Ocean Floor. The Office for the International Decade of Ocean Exploration, National Science Foundation, Washington D.C. 293 p.Google Scholar
  39. Horn, D.R., Delach, M.N. and Horn, B.M. 1973. Metal Content of Ferromanganese Deposits of the Oceans. Technical report no 3, NSF GX 33616. National Science Foundation, Washington D.C. 51 p.Google Scholar
  40. Jenkyns, H.C., 1977. Fossil nodules. In: Marine manganese deposits (Ed. G.P. Glasby ) 87–108, Elsevier Scientif. Publ. Co, Amsterdam.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ku, T.L., 1977. Rates of accretion. In: Marine Manganese Deposits (Ed: G.P. Glasby ) 249–267. Elsevier Scientific. Publ. Co, Amsterdam.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ku, T.L., and Glasby, G.P., 1972. Radiometric evidence for rapid growth rate of shallow-water continental margin manganese nodules. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 36, 699–704.Google Scholar
  43. Lalou, C., 1979, Ed., La Genese des Nodules de Manganese. Colloq. Internat. CNRS no 289, CNRS, Paris.Google Scholar
  44. Lalou, C., Genesis of ferromanganese deposits. Hydrothermal origin. In: Hydrothermal processes at seafloor spreading centers. P.A. Rona, K. Boström, L. Laubier and K. Smith, eds., NATO Conference series, Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  45. Loughnan, F.C., 1969. Chemical Weathering of the Silicate Minerals. Amer. Elsevier Publ. Co., Inc, New York, 154 p.Google Scholar
  46. Manheim, F.T., 1961. A geochemical profile in the Baltic Sea. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 25, 52–70.Google Scholar
  47. Manheim, F.T., 1965. Manganese-iron accumulations in the shallow marine environment. In: Symposium on marine geochemistry Occas. publ. 3, D.R. Schink and J.T. Corliss, eds., 217–276, Mar. Lab., Univ. of Rhode Island.Google Scholar
  48. Manheim, F.T., 1982. Geochemistry of manganese Carbonates in the Baltic Sea. Stockholm Contributions in Geology., 37, 145–159.Google Scholar
  49. Mero, J.L., 1965. The mineral resources of the Sea. Elsevier Scientif. Publ. Co., Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  50. Meylan, M.A., Glasby, G.P. and Fortin, L.I., 1981. Bibliography and Index to Literature on Manganese Nodules (1861–1979). Dept of planning and economic development, State of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, 530 p.Google Scholar
  51. Monget, J.M., Murray, J.W. and Mascle, J., 1976. A worldwide compilation of published = multicomponent analyses of ferromanganese concretions. Techn. Rep. No 12, NSF-IDOE, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  52. Moore, W.S., and Vogt, P.R., 1976. Hydrothermal manganese crusts from two sites near the Galapagos spreading axis. Earth and Planet. Sci. Letters 29, 349–356.Google Scholar
  53. Murray, J. and Renard A.F., 1891. Report on Deep Sea Deposits. Challenger Exped. Reports 3, Her Majesty’s Stationary office, London.Google Scholar
  54. Piper, D.Z., 1974. Rare earth elements in ferromanganese nodules and other marine phases. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 38, 1007–1022.Google Scholar
  55. Rona, P.A., 1978. Criteria for recognition of hydrothermal mineral deposits in oceanic crust. Econ. Geol. 73, 135–160.Google Scholar
  56. Rona, P.A., 1983. Hydrothermal mineral deposits at sea-floor spreading centers. Earth Science Reviews (in press).Google Scholar
  57. Rona, P.A., McGregor, B.A. Betzer, P.R. Bolger, G.W. and Krause, D.C., 1975. Anomalous water tem8eratures over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge Crest at 26 N latitude. Deep-Sea Research 22, 611–618.Google Scholar
  58. Rona, P.A., and Lowell, R.P., eds., 1980 Seafloor Spreading centers, Hydrothermal Systems. Benchmark Papers in Geology, 56. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross. Inc. Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. 425 p.Google Scholar
  59. Ross, D.A., 1978. Opportunities and uses of the ocean. Springer Verlag, New York 320 p.Google Scholar
  60. Roy, S., 1981. Manganese deposits. Academic Press, London. 458 p.Google Scholar
  61. Rydell, H.S., and Bonatti, E., 1973. Uranium in submarine metalliferous deposits. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 37, 2557–2565.Google Scholar
  62. Rydell, H.S., Kraemer, T., Boström. K., and Joensuu, O., 1974. Postdepositional injections of uranium-rich solutions into East Pacific Rise sediments. Mar. Geol., 17, 151–164.Google Scholar
  63. Scott, M.R., Osmund, J.K., and Cochran, J.K., 1972. Sedimentation rates and sediment chemistry in the South Indian Basin. In: Antarctic Oceanology II, D.E. Hayes, ed., Antarctic Res. Serie 19., Amer. Geophys. Union.Google Scholar
  64. Scott, M.R., Scott, R.B., Rona, P.A., Butler, L.W. and Nalwalk, A.J., 1974. Rapidly accumulating manganese deposit from the median valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Geophys. Res. Lett., 1, 355–358.Google Scholar
  65. Veeh, H.H., and Boström, K., 1971. Anomalous 234U/238U on the East Pacific Rise. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 10, 372–374.Google Scholar
  66. von der Borch, C.C., and Rex, R.W., 1970. Amorphous iron oxide precipitates in sediments cored during leg 5. In: Initial Re orts of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 5, D.A. Mc Manus et al., eds., U.S. Government Print. Office Washington.Google Scholar
  67. von Giimbel, G., 1878. Ueber die im Stillen Ozean auf dem Meeresgrunde vorkommenden Manganknollen. Sitz. Berichte d.K. Bayerischen Akademie d. Wissenschaften Münschen. Matem–Physik Klasse, 189–209.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt Boström
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of StockholmStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations