The earliest electronic digital computers were programmed by means of sense switches, program boards, and other “hardwired” techniques. Typical were ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) in the United States and COLOSSUS in Great Britain. ENIAC was built during the interval 1943–1945 at the University of Pennsylvania. COLOSSUS was entirely operational by the year 1943. The next great advance in computers was the stored-program machine originated by von Neumann in his historical First Draft Of A Report On The EDVAC published in March of 1945 (Goldstine, 1972). According to Lavington (1980), the world’s first operational stored-program computer was the University of Manchester’s Mark I. On June 21, 1948, this machine ran its first program (a factoring program requiring approximately an hour’s time). The Manchester Mark I was a 32-bit machine having a 32-line program store and a repertoire of only seven instructions. Programming was done entirely in machine language which was laboriously keyed into the computer in binary form. Machine-language programming was typical of the 1940’s and it was only in the 1950’s that assembly-language programming and later high-level language programming (e.g., FORTRAN) was introduced. Most of the cellular logic machines described in Chapter 10 and the array automata discussed in Chapter 11 use high-level language instructions, although an assembly-like language (CAP4) is often used for programming CLIP4.
KeywordsTest Pattern Magnetic Tape Assembly Language Image Array Image Processing Function
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