• Martin Goldstein
  • Inge Goldstein


In the theory of probability we started with knowledge of the chances of an individual outcome—heads or tails—and used this to predict the average behavior of sequences of individual trials. Our assumption that the probability of heads is 0.5 was based both on long and varied experience in tossing coins and on our intuitive feeling for the physics involved in tossing flat disk-shaped objects whose opposite sides are not very different.


Null Hypothesis Individual Trial White Ball Science Major Grand Total 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Reference Notes

  1. 1.
    Darrel Huff and Irving Geis, How to Lie with Statistics (New York: W. W. Norton, 1954).Google Scholar

Suggested Reading

  1. Tippet, L. H. C. Statistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  2. Huff, Darrel, and Irving Geis. How to Lie with Statistics. New York: W. W. Norton, 1954.Google Scholar
  3. Freedman, David, Robert Pisani, and Roger Purves. Statistics. New York: W. W. Norton, 1978.Google Scholar
  4. The book by Freedman et al. is a text for a statistics course requiring the minimum of prior mathematical training. It is clear and readable.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Goldstein
    • 1
  • Inge Goldstein
    • 2
  1. 1.Yeshiva UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Columbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

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