A Note on Replies

  • Samuel R. Levin
Part of the Cognition and Language: A Series in Psycholinguistics book series (CALS)


In G. Lakoff (1972) it is proposed that the logical form of sentences should include representation of illocutionary forces, viz.,
$$\left\{ {\begin{array}{*{20}c} {{\text{order}}} \\ {{\text{ask}}} \\ {{\text{state}}} \\ \end{array} } \right\}\left( {x,y,S_1 } \right),$$
where the performative verbs are predicates, x and y are arguments to be carried by grammatical rules into I and you respectively, and S1 is the direct object of the higher verb and, when expanded, will represent the propositional content of S.


Natural Language Logical Form Natural Logic Underlying Structure Propositional Attitude 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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  1. Austin, J. L. How to do things with words. New York: Oxford University Press, 1962.Google Scholar
  2. Lakoff, G. Linguistics and natural logic. In D. Davidson & G. Harmon (Eds.), Semantics of natural language. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel, 1972.Google Scholar
  3. Ross, J. R. On declarative sentences. In R. A. Jacobs & P. S. Rosenbaum (Eds.), Readings in English transformational grammar. Waltham, Mass.: Ginn, 1970.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samuel R. Levin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of English, Hunter CollegeGraduate School of the City University of New YorkUSA

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