Citizen Action and Participation in Madrid
It is one of history’s ironies that Spain, so long the bastion of fascist dictatorship, has today perhaps the most powerful independent citizens’ movement in Europe. Almost every Spanish city has neighborhood associations, housewives’ organizations, parent-teacher associations, organizations of pensioners and retired workers, and merchants’ associations. These are not only relatively more numerous than in other European cities but also, in many cases, more developed in terms of militancy, consciousness, level of organization, and independence.1 They oppose becoming simply neighborhood governments in a decentralized system or local chapters of the left-wing parties and cling fiercely to the position that their greatest asset is their autonomy.
KeywordsPlanning Process Citizen Action Executive Board Municipal Council Neighborhood Association
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- 2.Eduardo Leira, Jesus Leal et al., “La Participation Conflictual en Madrid: Movimentos Urbanos 1975-77,” (Madrid: COPLACO, 1979).Google Scholar
- 11.Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed (New York: Herder & Herder, 1970), and Education for Critical Consciousness (New York: Seabury Press, 1973).Google Scholar
- 19.See Saul Alinsky, Rules for Radicals (New York: Random House, 1971) and Reveille for Radicals (New York: Vintage Books, Random House, 1946).Google Scholar
- 21.See Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed (New York: Herder & Herder, 1970), and Education for Critical Consciousness (New York: Seabury Press, 1973).Google Scholar