Copenhagen’s Black Quadrant

The Facade and Reality of Participation
  • Janice Perlman
  • Hans Spiegel
Part of the Environment, Development, and Public Policy book series (EDPE)


Copenhagen is what it seems to be—a vibrant, livable “city that works”—unless you are a citizen trying to make your voice heard in city planning. Despite the elaborate mechanisms for citizen participation in the planning process, the impact of such involvement is minimal. In fact, according to Vilo Sigurdsen, Deputy Mayor in charge of planning, the elaborate mechanisms for participation have produced not one single instance in recent years when a plan has been substantially modified by citizen input.


Social Housing Urban Renewal Citizen Participation Citizen Action Renewal Plan 
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    Kai Lemberg, “A Squatter Settlement in Copenhagen: Slum Ghetto or Social Experiment?” International Review, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Vol. I., 1, 1978.Google Scholar
  2. 13.
    This section is based on Janice Perlman, “Grassroots Participation for Neighborhood to Nation,” in Stuart Langton, ed., Citizen Participation in America (Lexington, Mass.: Heath, 1978) chap. 6.Google Scholar
  3. 14.
    Sherry Arnstein, “A Ladder of Citizen Participation,” Journal of the American Institute of Planners 35 (July 1969), 221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Peggy Wireman, “Citizen Participation,” in The Encyclopedia of Social Work (Washington, D.C.: National Association of Social Workers, 1977), pp. 175–180.Google Scholar
  5. 16.
    Roland Warren, The Structure of Urban Reform (Lexington, Mass.: Heath, 1974).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janice Perlman
  • Hans Spiegel

There are no affiliations available

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