Physical and Biological Aspects of Puberty

  • Michelle P. Warren

Abstract

Puberty is a complex biological and maturational event, spans many years, is characterized by marked physical changes which prepare the body for reproduction, and is not well understood in terms of its onset. Menarche (the first menstrual period) occurs fairly late in this maturational process. Since menarche is such a salient event for the pubertal girl, it has been studied with more intensity than the other events of puberty.

Keywords

Anorexia Nervosa Clinical Endocrinology Biological Aspect Adrenal Androgen Gonadotropin Secretion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baker, T. G. Oogenesis and ovulation. In C. R. Austin and R. V. Short (Eds.), Germ cells and fertilization: Reproduction in mammals I. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1972, 14–45.Google Scholar
  2. Barry, V. C., and Klawans, H. L. On the role of dopamine in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa. Journal of Neural Transmission, 1976, 38, 107–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beumont, P. J. V., George, G. C. W., Pimstone, B. L., and Vinik, A. I. Body weight and pituitary response to hypothalamic releasing hormones in patients with anorexia nervosa. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1976, 43, 487–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Belhorsky, B., Siracky, J., Sandor, L., and Klauber, E. Comments on the development of amenorrhea caused by myleran in cases of chronic myelosis. Neoplasma, 1960, 7, 397–403.Google Scholar
  5. Boyar, R. M., Finkelstein, J., Roffwarg, H., Kapen, S., Weitzman, E., and Hellman, L. Synchronization of augmented luteinizing hormone secretion with sleep during puberty. New England Journal of Medicine, 1972, 287, 582–586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boyar, R. M., Katz, J., Finkelstein, J. W., Kapen, S., Weiner, H., Weitzman, E. D., and Hellman, L. Anorexia nervosa: Immaturity of the 24-hour luteinizing hormone secretory pattern. New England Journal of Medicine, 1974, 291, 861–865.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown, G. M., Garfinkel, P. E., Jeuniewic, N., Moldofsky, H., and Stancer, H. L. Endocrine profiles in anorexia nervosa. In R. Vigersky (Ed.), Anorexia nervosa, New York: Raven Press, 1977, 123–135.Google Scholar
  8. Bruch, H. Eating disorders, obesity, anorexia nervosa and the person within. New York: Basic Books, 1973.Google Scholar
  9. Bruch, H. Psychological antecedents of anorexia nervosa. In R. Vigersky (Ed.), Anorexia nervosa. New York: Raven Press, 1977, 1–10.Google Scholar
  10. Cheek, D. B. Body composition hormones, nutrition and adolescent growth. In M. M. Grumbach, G. D. Grave, and F. E. Mayer (Eds.), Control of the onset of puberty. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1974, 424–447.Google Scholar
  11. Coates, T. J., and Thorensen, C. E. Obesity among children and adolescents. In B. Takey and A. E. Kazden (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology. Vol. 3. New York: Plenum, 1980.Google Scholar
  12. Crisp, A. H. Clinical and therapeutic aspects of anorexia nervosa. A study of 30 cases. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 1965, 9, 67–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crisp, A. H. Primary anorexia nervosa or adolescent weight phobia. Practitioner, 1974, 212, 525–535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Crisp, A. H. Some psychological aspects of adolescent growth and their relevance for the fat/thin syndrome (anorexia nervosa). International Journal of Obesity, 1977, 1, 231–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Crisp, A. H., Palmer, R. L., and Kalucy, R. S. How common is anorexia nervosa? A prevalence study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1976, 128, 549–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Critchlow, V., and Bar-Sela, M. E. Control of the onset of puberty. In L. Martini and W. F. Ganong (Eds.), Neuroendocrinology. Vol. II. New York: Academic Press, 1967, 101162.Google Scholar
  17. Dale, E., Gerlach, D. H., and Wilhite, A. L. Menstrual dysfunction in distance runners. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1979, 54, 47–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dreizen, S., Spirakis, C. N., and Stone, R. F. A comparison of skeletal growth and maturation in undernourished and well-nourished girls before and after menarche. Journal of Pediatrics, 1967, 70, 256–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Espenschade, A. Motor performance in adolescence. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 1940, 5, 1–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Faiman, C., and Winter, J. S. D. Sex differences in gonadotropin concentrations in infancy. Nature, 1971, 232, 130–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Feicht, C. B., Johnson, T. S., Martin, B. J., Sparkes, K. E., and Wagner, W. W. Secondary amenorrhea in athletes. Lancet, 1978, 2, 1145–1146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Feighner, J. P., Robins, E., Guze, S. B., Woodruff, R. A., Winokur, G., and Munoz, R. Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1972, 26, 57–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fishman, J., Boyar, R. M., and Hellman, L. Influence of body weight on estradiol metabolism in young women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1975, 41, 989–991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Forbes, G. B. Puberty: Body composition. In S. R. Berenberg (Ed.), Puberty, biological and psycho-social components. Leiden: Stenfert Kroese, 1975, 132–145.Google Scholar
  25. Fries, H. Studies on secondary amenorrhea, anorectic behavior and body image perception: Importance for the early recognition of anorexia nervosa. In R. Vigersky (Ed.), Anorexia nervosa. New York: Raven Press, 1977, 163–176.Google Scholar
  26. Fries, H., Nillus, S. J., and Pettersson, F. Epidemiology of secondary amenorrhea. A retrospective evaluation of etiology with special regard to psychogenic factors and weight loss. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1974, 118, 473–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Friis-Hanson, B. In J. Brozek (Ed.), Human body composition: Approaches and applications. (Symposia of the Society for the Study of Human Biology, 7 ) Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1965, 191–209.Google Scholar
  28. Frisch, R. E. Weight at menarche: similarity for well-nourished and undernourished girls at differing ages, and evidence for historical constancy. Pediatrics, 1972, 50, 445–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Frisch, R. E., and McArthur, J. W., Menstrual cycles: fatness as a determinant of minimum weight for height necessary for their maintenance or onset. Science, 1974, 185, 949–951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Frisch, R. E., and Revelle, R. Height and weight at menarche and a hypothesis of menarche. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1971, 46, 695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Frisch, R. E., Revelle, R., and Cook, S. Components of weight at menarche and the imitation of the adolescent growth spurt in girls: estimated total water, lean body weight and fat. Human Biology, 1973, 45, 469–483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Garell, D. C. Adolescent medicine: A survey in the United States and Canada. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 1965, 109, 314–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Garfinkel, P. E. Some recent observations on the pathogenesis of anorexia nervosa. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 1981, 26, 218–223.Google Scholar
  34. Garner, D. M. Body image in anorexia nervosa. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 1981, 26, 224–227.Google Scholar
  35. Garner, D. M. and Garfinkel, P. E. Sociocultural factors in anorexia nervosa. Lancet, 1978, 2, 674.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Givens, J. R., Wiedemann, E., Anderson, R. N., and Kitabchi, A. E. ß-endorphin and ßlipotropin plasma levels in hirsute women: correlation with body weight. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1980, 50, 975–976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gordon, S., Cantrall, E. W., Leklenick, W. P., Albers, H. J., Mauer, S., Stolar, S. M., and Bernstein, S. Steroid and lipid metabolism, the hypocholesteremic effect of estrogen metabolites. Steroids, 1964, 4, 267–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Grumbach, M. M., Roth, J. C., Kaplan, S. L., and Kelch, R. P. Hypothalamic pituitary regulation of puberty in man: Evidence and concepts derived from clinical research. In M. M. Grumbach, D. Grave, and F. F. Mayer (Eds.), Control of the onset of puberty. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1974, 115–166.Google Scholar
  39. Grumbach, M. M., Richards, H. E., Conte, F. A., and Kaplan, S. A. Clinical disorders of adrenal function and puberty: an assessment of the role of the adrenal cortex in normal and abnormal puberty in man and evidence for an ACTH-like pituitary adrenal androgen stimulating hormone. In M. Serio (Ed.), The endocrine function of the human adrenal cortex, serono symposium. New York: Academic Press, 1977, 583–612.Google Scholar
  40. Hall, M. G. R., Murray, M. A. F., Franks, S., and Jacobs, H. S. Endocrinopathy of weight recovered anorexia nervosa in women presenting with secondary amenorrhea. Journal of Endocrinology, 1976, 66, 43–44.Google Scholar
  41. Halmi, K. A. Anorexia nervosa: demographic and clinical features in 94 cases. Psychosomatic medicine, 1974, 36, 18–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hopper, B. R., and Yen, S. S. C. Circulating concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate during puberty. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1975, 40,.458–461.Google Scholar
  43. Jacobs, H. S., Hall, M. G. R., Murray, M. A. F., and Franks, S. Therapy-oriented diagnosis of secondary amenorrhea. Hormone Research (Basel), 1975, 6, 268–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Job, J. C., Garneer, P. E., Chaussain, J. L., and Milhaud, G. Elevation of serum gonadotropins (LH and FSH) after releasing hormone (LH-RH). Infections in normal children and in patients with disorders of normal puberty. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1972, 35, 473–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kendell, R. E., Hall, D. J., Harley, A., and Babigan, H. M. The epidemiology of anorexia nervosa. Psychological Medicine, 1973, 3, 200–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Knuth, U. A., Hull, M. G. R., and Jacobs, H. S. Amenorrhea and loss of weight. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1977, 84, 801–807.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lord, J. A., Waterfield, A. A., Hughes, J., and Kosterlitz, H. W. Endogenous opioid peptides: multiple agonists and receptors. Nature, 1977, 267, 495–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McArthur, J. W., O’Laughlin, K. M., Bertus, I. Z., Johnson, L., Hourihan, J., and Alonso, C. Endocrine studies during the refeeding of young women with nutritional amenorrhea and infertility. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 1976, 51, 607–616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Malina, R. M., Harper, A. B., Avent, H. H., and Campbell, D. E. Age at menarche in athletes and nonathletes. Medicine and Science in Sports, 1973, 5, 11–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Malina, R. M., Spirduso, W. W., Tate, C., and Baylor, A. M. Age at menarche and selected menstrual characteristics in athletes at different competitive levels and in different sports. Medicine and Science in Sports, 1978, 10, 218–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Margules, D. L., Lewis, M. J., Shibuya, H., and Pert, C. B. (3-endorphin is associated with overeating in genetically obese mice (ob/ob) and rats (fa/fa). Science, 1978, 202, 988–991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Marshall, W. A., and Tanner, J. M. Variations in pattern of pubertal changes in girls. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1969, 44, 291–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mecklenburg, R. S., Loriaux, D. L., Thompson, R. H., Andersen, A. E., and Lipsett, M. B. Hypothalamic dysfunction in patients with anorexia nervosa. Medicine, 1974, 53, 147–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. National Center for Health Statistics: Age at menarche. United States, Vital and health statistics, series II. No. 133, 1973.Google Scholar
  55. Odell, W. D. The physiology of puberty: Disorders of the pubertal process. In L. J. DeGroot (Ed.), Endocrinology. Vol. 3. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1979, 1163–1379.Google Scholar
  56. Osier, D. C., and Crawford, J. D. Examination of the hypothesis of a critical weight at menarche in ambulatory and bedridden mentally retarded girls. Pediatrics, 1973, 51, 675–679.Google Scholar
  57. Pierson, R. N., Jr., and Lin, D. H. Measurements of body compartments in children: Whole-body counting and other methods. Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, 1972, 2, 373–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Reiter, E. O., Fuldauer, V. G., and Root, A. W. Secretion of the adrenal androgen, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, during normal infancy, children with endocrinologic abnormalities. Journal of Pediatrics, 1977, 90, 766–770.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Roth, J. C., Kelch, R. P., Kaplan, S. L., and Grumbach, M. M. FSH and LH response to luteinizing hormone-releasing factor in prepubertal and pubertal children, adult males and patients with hypogonadotropic and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1972, 35, 926–930.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Santen, R. J., and Bardin, C. W. Episodic luteinizing hormone secretion in man. Pulse analysis, clinical interpretation, physiologic mechanisms. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 1973, 52, 2617–2628.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schindler, A. E., Ebert, A., and Friedrich, E. Conversion of androstenedione to estrone by human fat tissue. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1972, 35, 627–630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sherman, B. M., Halmi, K. A., and Zamudio, R. LH and FSH response to gonadotropinreleasing hormone in anorexia nervosa: Effect of nutritional rehabilitation. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1975, 41, 135–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Siris, E. S., Leventhal, B. G., and Vaitukaitis, J. L. Effects of childhood leukemia and chemotherapy on puberty and reproductive function in girls. New England Journal of Medicine, 1976, 294, 1143–1146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Slade, P. D., and Russell, G. F. M., Awareness of body dimensions in anorexia nervosa: cross sectional and longitudinal studies. Psychological Medicine, 1973, 3, 188–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Starkey, T. A., and Lee, R. A. Menstruation and fertility in anorexia nervosa. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1969, 105, 374–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Styne, D. M., and Grumbach, M. M. Puberty in the male and female: Its physiology and disorders. In S. S. C. Yen and R. B. Jaffe (Eds.), Reproductive endocrinology, physiology, pathophysiology and clinical management. Philadelphia: B. Saunders, 1978, 193.Google Scholar
  67. Swerdloff, R. S. Physiological control of puberty. Medical Clinics of North America, 1978, 62, 351–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Tanner, J. M. Trend towards earlier menarche in London, Oslo, Copenhagen, The Netherlands and Hungary. Nature, 1973, 243, 95–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tanner, J. M., Whitehouse, R. H., Hughes, P. C. R., and Carter, B. S. Relative importance of growth hormone and sex steroids for the growth at puberty of trunk length, limb length, and muscle width in growth hormone deficient children. Journal of Pediatrics, 1976a, 89, 1000–1008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tanner, J. M., Whitehouse, R. H., Marubini, E., and Resele, L. F. The adolescent growth spurt of boys and girls of the Harpenden Growth Study. Annals of Human Biology, 1976b, 3, 109–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Traswell, A. S., and Hansen, J. D. L. Medical and nutritional studies of !Kung Bushmen in northwest Botswana: A preliminary report. South African Medical Journal, 1968, 42, 1338–1339.Google Scholar
  72. Uldall, P. R., Kerr, D. N. S., and Tachhi, D. Sterility and cyclophosphamide. Lancet, 1972, 1, 693–694.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Valk, T. W., Corley, K. P., Kelch, R. P., and Marshall, J. C. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: Hormonal response to low dose pulsatele administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1980, 51, 730–738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Vander Walt, L. A., Wilmsen, E. N., and Jenkins, T. Unusual sex hormone patterns among desert-dwelling hunter-gatherers. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1978, 46, 658–663.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Vigersky, R. A., Loriaux, D. L., Andersen, A. E., and Lipsett, M. B. Anorexia nervosa: Behavioral and hypothalamic aspects. Clinics in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1976, 5, 517–535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Vigersky, R. A., Andersen, A. E., Thompson, R. H., Loriaux, D. L. Hypothalamic dysfunction in secondary amenorrhea associated with simple weight loss. New England Journal of Medicine, 1977, 297, 1141–1145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Warne, G. L., Fairley, K. F., Hobbs, J. B., and Martin, F. I. R. Cycle phosphamide-induced ovarian failure. New England Journal of Medicine, 1973, 289, 1159–1162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Warren, M. P. The effects of exercise on pubertal progression and reproductive function in girls. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism,1980, 51(5),1150–1157.Google Scholar
  79. Warren, M. P. The effects of altered nutritional states, stress, and systemic illness on reproduction in women. In J. Vaitukaitus (Ed.), Clinical reproductive neuroendocrinology. New York, Elsevier-North Holland, 1982, 177–201.Google Scholar
  80. Warren, M. P., and VandeWiele, R. L. Clinical and metabolic features of anorexia nervosa. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1973, 117, 435–449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Warren, M. P., Jewelewicz, R., Dyrenfurth, I., Ans, R., Khalaf, S., and VandeWiele, R. L. The significance of weight loss in the evaluation of pituitary response to LHRH in women with secondary amenorrhea. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1975, 40, 601–611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Winter, J. S. D., and Faiman, C. Pituitary-gonadal relations in male children and adolescents. Pediatric Research, 1972, 6, 126–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Yoshimoto, Y., Moridera, K., and Imura, H. Restoration of normal pituitary gonadotropin reserve by administration of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. New England Journal of Medicine, 1975, 292, 242–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Zacharias, L., and Wurtman, R. J. Blindness: Its relation to age of menarche. Science, 1964, 29, 1154–1155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Zacharias, L., Wurtman, R. J., and Schatzoff, M. Sexual maturation in contemporary American girls. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1970, 108, 833–846.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michelle P. Warren
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Medicine, and Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Physicians and SurgeonsColumbia University; and St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations