Advertisement

Environmental Risks in Fetal and Neonatal Life as Biological Determinants of Infant Intelligence

  • Jane V. Hunt

Abstract

The infant who is at risk for intellectual impairment because of environmental events in fetal or neonatal life is the special concern of this chapter. Investigators who study the underlying causes of impairment approach the question from varied perspectives. Both medical and social science research will be reviewed here to provide the reader with some synthesis, examine what is known, and consider research methods that offer promise for investigating unresolved questions.

Keywords

Birth Weight Maternal Smoking Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal Growth Retardation Maternal Malnutrition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abel, E. L. Fetal alcohol syndrome: Behavioral teratology. Pyschological Bulletin, 1980, 87, 29–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Als, H., Tronick, E., Adamson, L., and Brazelton, T. B. The behavior of the full-term but underweight newborn infant. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1976, 18, 590–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Als, H., Lester, B. M., and Brazelton, T. B. Dynamics of the behavioral organization of the premature infant: A theoretical perspective. In T. M. Field, A. M. Sostek, S. Goldberg, and H. H. Shuman (Eds.), Infants born at risk: Behavior and development. New York: Spectrum, 1979.Google Scholar
  4. Babson, S. G., and Henderson, N. B. Fetal undergrowth: Relation of head growth to later intellectual performance. Pediatrics, 1974, 53, 890–894.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bayley, N. Manual, Bayley scales of infant development. New York: Psychological Corporation, 1969.Google Scholar
  6. Brazelton, T. B. Neonatal behavioral assessment scale. London: Spastics International Medical Publications, 1973.Google Scholar
  7. Broman, S. H., Nichols, P. L., and Kennedy, W. A. Preschool IQ: Prenatal and early development correlates. New York: Halsted Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  8. Campbell, S., and Newman, G. B. Growth of the fetal biparietal diameter during normal pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth, 1971, 78, 513–519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cattell, P. The measurement of intelligence in infants and young children. New York: Science Press, 1940. (Reprinted by Psychological Corporation, 1960.)Google Scholar
  10. Chaplin, E. R., Goldstein, G. W., Myerberg, D. Z., Hunt, J. V., and Tooley, W. H. Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in the preterm infant. Pediatrics, 1980, 65, 901–909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Clarren, S. K., and Smith, D. W. The fetal alcohol syndrome: A review of the world literature. New England Journal of Medicine, 1978, 298, 1063–1067.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Commey, J. O. O., and Fitzhardinge, P. M. Handicap in the preterm small-for-gestational age infant. Journal of Pediatrics, 1979, 94, 779–786.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Davies, P. A. Infants of very low birth weight: An appraisal of some aspects of their present neonatal care and of their later prognosis. In D. Hull (Ed.), Recent advances in pediatrics. London: Churchill-Livingstone, 1976.Google Scholar
  14. Davis, M. M., and Shanks, B. Neurological aspects of perinatal narcotic addiction and methadone treatment. Addictive Diseases: An International Journal, 1975, 2, 213–226.Google Scholar
  15. Dinges, D. F., Davis, M. M., and Glass, P. Fetal exposure to narcotics: Neonatal sleep as a measure of nervous system disturbance. Science, 1980, 209 (4456), 612–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dobbing, J., and Sands, J. Quantitative growth and development of human brain. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1973, 48, 757–767.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Drillien, C. M. The growth and development of the prematurely born infant. Baltimore, Md.: Williams and Wilkins, 1964.Google Scholar
  18. Drillien, C. M. Aetiology and outcome in low-birth-weight infants. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1972, 14, 563–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dykes, F. D., Lazzara, A., Ahmann, P., Blumenstein, B., Schwartz, J., and Brann, A. W. Intraventricular hemorrhage: A prospective evaluation of etiopathogenesis. Pediatrics, 1980, 66, 42–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Fancourt, R., Campbell, S., Harvey, D., and Norman, A. P. Follow-up study of smallfor-date babies. British Medical Journal, 1976, 1, 1435–1437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Field, T. M., Dempsey, J. R., and Shuman, H. H. Developmental assessments of infants surviving the respiratory distress syndrome. In T. M. Field, A. M. Sostek, S. Goldberg, and H. H. Shuman (Eds.), Infants born at risk: Behavior and development. New York: Spectrum, 1979.Google Scholar
  22. Field, T. M., Sostek, A. M., Goldberg, S., and Shuman, H. H. (Eds.). Infants born at risk: Behavior and development. New York: Spectrum, 1979.Google Scholar
  23. Fitzhardinge, P. M., Kalman, E., Ashby, S., and Pape, K. E. Present status of the infant of very low birth weight treated in a referral neonatal intensive care unit in 1974. In Major mental handicap: Methods and costs of prevention (Ciba Foundation Symposium 59 ). Amsterdam: Elsevier/Excerpta Medica/North-Holland, 1978.Google Scholar
  24. Fogelman, K. Smoking in pregnancy and subsequent development of the child. Child Care, Health and Development, 1980, 6, 233–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Francis-Williams, J., and Davies, P. A. Very low birthweight and later intelligence. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1974, 16, 709–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Frankenburg, W. K., Dodds, J. B., and Fandal, A. W. Denver developmental screening test. Denver: University of Colorado Medical Center, 1970.Google Scholar
  27. Friedman, S. L., and Sigman, M. (Eds.). Preterm birth and psychological development. New York: Academic Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  28. Gabr, M. Malnutrition during pregnancy and lactation. In G. H. Bourne (Ed.), World review of nutrition and dietetics (Vol. 36 ). Basel: Karger, 1981.Google Scholar
  29. Gesell, A., and Amatruda, C. S. Developmental diagnosis. New York: Paul B. Hoeber, 1941. Gesell, A., and Amatruda, C. S. The embryology of behavior: The beginnings of the human mind. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1945.Google Scholar
  30. Gorski, P. A., Davison, M. F., and Brazelton, T. B. Stages of behavioral organization in the high-risk neonate: Theoretical and clinical considerations. Seminars in Perinatology, 1979, 3, 61–72.Google Scholar
  31. Griffiths, R. The abilities of young children: a comprehensive system of mental measurement for the first eight years of life. London: Child Development Research Center, 1970.Google Scholar
  32. Hack, M., Fanarofi, A. A., and Merkatz, I. R. The low-birth-weight infant—evolution of a changing outlook. New England Journal of Medicine, 1979, 301, 1162–1166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hardy, J. B., and Mellits, E. D. Does maternal smoking during pregnancy have a long-term effect on the child? Lancet, 1972, 2, 1332–1336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hunt, J. V. Longitudinal research: A method for studying the intellectual development of high risk preterm infants. In T. M. Field, A. M. Sostek, S. Goldberg, and H. H. Shuman (Eds.), Infants born at risk: Behavior and development. New York: Spectrum, 1979.Google Scholar
  35. Hunt, J. V. Predicting intellectual disorders in childhood for preterm infants with birth-weights below 1501 grams. In S. L. Friedman and M. Sigman (Eds.), Preterm birth and psychological development. New York: Academic Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  36. Hutchings, D. E. Behavioral teratology: Embryopathic and behavioral effects of drugs during pregnancy. In F. Gottlieb (Ed.), Studies on the development of behavior and the nervous system (Vol. 4): Early influences. New York: Academic Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  37. Jones, K. L., and Smith, D. W. Recognition of the fetal alcohol syndrome in early infancy. Lancet, 1973, 2, 999–1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jones, K. L., Smith, D. W., Streissguth, A. P., and Myrianthopoulos, N. C. Outcome in offspring of chronic alcoholic women. Lancet, 1974, 1, 1076–1078.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jones,R. A. K., Cummins, M., and Davies, P. A. Infants of very low birthweight. A 15-year analysis. Lancet, 1979, 1, 1332–1335.Google Scholar
  40. Kaltenbach, K., Graziani, L. J., and Finnegan, L. P. Methadone exposure in utero: Developmental status at one and two years of age. Protracted Effects of Perinatal Drug Dependence, Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 1979, 11 (Suppl.), 15–17.Google Scholar
  41. Kamper, J. Long term prognosis of infants with severe idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome. I. Neurological and mental outcome. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, 1978, 67, 61–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Koons, B. L. Neurologic sequelae in infants with intrauterine growth retardation. Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 1978, 21, 343–351.Google Scholar
  43. Korner, A. F. Maternal rhythms and waterbeds: A form of intervention with premature infants. In E. B. Thoman (Ed.), Origins of the infant’s social responsiveness. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1979.Google Scholar
  44. Korner, A. F., and Thoman, E. B. The relative efficacy of contact and vestibular stimulation in soothing neonates. Child Development, 1972, 43, 443–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Korner, A. F., Kraemer, H. C., Haffner, M. E., and Cosper, L. M. Effects of waterbed flotation on premature infants: A pilot study. Pediatrics, 1975, 56, 361–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Korner, A. F., Forrest, T., and Schneider, P. Development of a longitudinal neurobehavioral assessment procedure for preterms: Preliminary results from an intervention study. Paper presented at the meetings for the Society for Research in Child Development, Boston, 1981.Google Scholar
  47. Leatherwood, P. Influence of early undernutrition on behavioral development and learning in rodents. In G. Gottlieb (Ed.), Studies on the development of behavior and the nervous system (Vol. 4): Early influences. New York: Academic Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  48. Leijon, I., Finnstrom, O., Nilsson, B., and Ryden, G. Neurology and behaviour of growthretarded neonates. Relation to biochemical placental function tests in late pregnancy. Early Human Development, 1980, 4, 257–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lipper, E., Lee, K. S., Gartner, L. M., and Grellong, B. Determinants of neurobehavioral outcome in low-birth-weight infants. Pediatrics, 1981, 67, 502–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Lodge, A., Marcus, M. M., and Ramer, C. M. Behavioral and electrophysiological characteristics of the addicted neonate. Addictive Diseases: An International Journal, 1975, 2, 235–255.Google Scholar
  51. Lubchenco, L. O., Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M., and Searls, D. Long-term follow-up of prematurely born infants. II. Influence of birth weight and gestational age on sequelae. Journal of Pediatrics, 1972, 80, 509–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mccarthy, D. Manual for the McCarthy scales of children’s abilities. New York: Psychological Corporation, 1972.Google Scholar
  53. Miller, H. C. and Merritt, T. A. Fetal growth in humans. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, 1979.Google Scholar
  54. Olegard, R., Sabel, K. G., Aronsson, M., Sandin, B., Johansson, P. R., Carlsson, C., Kyllerman, M., Iversen, K., and Hrbek, A. Effects on the child of alcohol abuse during pregnancy. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica,1979, Supplement 275,112–121.Google Scholar
  55. Olsen, G. D., and Lees, M. H. Ventilatory response to carbon dioxide of infants following chronic prenatal methadone exposure. Journal of Pediatrics, 1980, 96, 983–989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ostrea, E. M., and Chavez, C. J. Perinatal problems (excluding neonatal withdrawal) in maternal drug addiction: A study of 830 cases. Journal of Pediatrics, 1979, 94, 292–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pape, K. E., Buncic, R. J., Ashby, S., and Fitzhardinge, P. M. The status at two years of low-birth-weight infants born in 1974 with birth weights of less than 1,001 gm. Journal of Pediatrics, 1978, 92, 253–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Parkinson, C. E., Wallis, S., and Harvey, D. School achievement and behaviour of children who were small-for-dates at birth. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1981, 23, 41–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Philip, A. G. S. Fetal growth retardation: Femurs, fontanels, and follow-up. Pediatrics, 1978, 62, 446–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Ramer, C. M., and Lodge, A. Neonatal addiction: A two-year study. Part I. Clinical and developmental characteristics of infants of mothers on methadone maintenance. Addictive Diseases: An International Journal, 1975, 2, 227–234.Google Scholar
  61. Rantakallio, P. The effect of maternal smoking on birth weight and the subsequent health of the child. Early Human Development,1978, 2(4), 371–382. (a)Google Scholar
  62. Rantakallio, P. Relationship of maternal smoking to morbidity and mortality of the child up to age of five. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica,1978, 67,621–631. (b)Google Scholar
  63. Richardson, S. A. The relation of severe malnutrition in infancy to the intelligence of school children with differing life histories. Pediatrics Research, 1976, 10, 57–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rosenzweig, M. R., and Bennett, E. L. Experiential influences on brain anatomy and brain chemistry in rodents.In G. Gottlieb (Ed.), Studies on the development of behavior and the nervous system (Vol. 4): Early influences. New York: Academic Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  65. Rosett, H. L., Snyder, P., Sander, L. W., Lee, A., Cook, P., Weiner, L., and Gould, J. Effects of maternal drinking on neonate state regulation. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1979, 21, 464–473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ruiz, M. P. D., Lefever, J. A., Hakanson, D. O., Clark, D. A., and Williams, M. L. Early development of infants of birth weight less than 1,000 grams with reference to mechanical ventilation in the newborn period. Pediatrics, 1981, 68, 330–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Sameroff, A. J., and Chandler, M. J. Reproductive risk and the continuum of caretaking casualty. In F. D. Horowitz, M. Hetherington, S. Scarr-Salapatek, and G. Siegel (Eds.), Review of child development research (Vol. 4 ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  68. Saxton, D. W. The behaviour of infants whose mothers smoke in pregnancy. Early Human Development, 1978, 2, 363–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Simpson, W. J. A preliminary report on cigarette smoking and the incidence of prematurity. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1957, 73, 808–815.Google Scholar
  70. Sokol, R. J., Miller, S. I., and Reed, G. Alcohol abuse during pregnancy: An epidemiologic study. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1980, 4, 135–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Stave, U., and Ruvalo, C. Neurological development in very-low-birthweight infants. Application of a standardized examination and Prechtl’s optimality concept in routine evaluations. Early Human Development, 1980, 4, 229–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Stewart, A. L., and Reynolds, E. O. R. Improved prognosis for infants of very low birth-weight. Pediatrics, 1974, 54, 724–735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Strauss, M. E., Starr, R. H., Ostrea, E. M., Chavez, C. J., and Stryker, J. C. Behavioral concomitants of prenatal addiction to narcotics. Journal of Pediatrics, 1976, 89, 842–846.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Strauss, M. E., Lessen-Firestone, J. K., Chavez, C. J., and Stryker, J. C. Children of methadone-treated women at five years of age. Protracted Effects of Perinatal Drug Dependence, Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 1979, 11 (Suppl.), 3–6.Google Scholar
  75. Streissguth, A. P. Maternal alcoholism and the outcome of pregnancy: A review of the fetal alcohol syndrome. In M. Greenblatt and M. A. Schuckit (Eds.), Alcoholism problems in women and children. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1976.Google Scholar
  76. Streissguth, A. P., Barr, H. M., Martin, D. C., and Herman, C. S. Effects of maternal alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine use during pregnancy on infant mental and motor development at eight months. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1980, 4, 152–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Streissguth, A. P., Landesman-Dwyer, S., Martin, J. C., and Smith, D. W. Teratogenic effects of alcohol in humans and laboratory animals. Science, 1980, 209, 353–361.Google Scholar
  78. Streissguth, A. P., Martin, D. C., Martin, J. C., and Barr, H. M. The Seattle longitudinal prospective study on alcohol and pregnancy. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, 1981, 3, 223–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Thompson, T., and Reynolds, J. The results of intensive care therapy for neonates: I. Overall neonatal mortality rates: II. Neonatal mortality rates and long-term prognosis for low birth weight neonates. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 1977, 5, 59–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Tooley, W. H. Epidemiology of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Journal of Pediatrics, 1979, 95, 851–855.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Usher, R., and Mclean, F. Interuterine growth of live-born Caucasian infants at sea level: Standards obtained from measurements in 7 dimensions of infants born between 24 and 44 weeks of gestation. Journal of Pediatrics, 1969, 74, 901–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Vohr, B. R., OH, W., Rosenfield, A. G., and Cowett, R. M. The preterm small-forgestational age infant: A two-year follow-up study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1979, 133, 425–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Vuori, L., Christiansen, N., Clement, J., Mora, J. O., Wagner, M., and Herrera, M. G. Nutritional supplementation and the outcome of pregnancy: II. Visual habituation at 15 days. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1979, 32, 463–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Wilson, G. S., Desmond, M. M., and Verniaud, W. M. Early development of infants of heroin-addicted mothers. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 1973, 126, 457–462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Wilson, G. S., Mccreary, R., Kean, J., and Baxter, J. C. The development of preschool children of heroin-addicted mothers: A controlled study. Pediatrics, 1979, 63, 135–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Zamenhof, S., and VanMarthens, E. Nutritional influences on prenatal brain development.In G. Gottlieb (Ed.), Studies on the development of behavior and the nervous system (Vol. 4): Early influences. New York: Academic Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  87. Zeskind, P. S., and Ramey, C. T. Preventing intellectual and interactional sequelae of fetal malnutrition: A longitudinal, transactional, and synergistic approach to development. Child Development, 1981, 52, 213–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jane V. Hunt
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Human DevelopmentUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations