Organization of Sensorimotor Intelligence

  • Ina Č. Užgiris


Infancy is traditionally recognized as a distinct period in the course of human life. Even those who do not view ontogenesis in terms of qualitative transformations in psychological functioning seem to recognize a gap between functioning in infancy and functioning in subsequent age periods. The apparent limitations on self-initiated activity, on physical mobility, and on communication with others during infancy have impressed numerous observers and have led to the conjecture that the infant’s world may be quite unlike the world known by adults. Nevertheless, infant functioning has been more often characterized in terms of lack or deficiency with respect to adult abilities than in terms of a coherent mode of organizing action in the world as it exists for the infant. Studies of infant intelligence have been concerned more with charting those infant behaviors that seem to indicate progressive approximation to adult patterns of action or those that seem to document acquisition of concrete information about reality than with any system manifest in the diverse activities of infants.


Intellectual Functioning Retarded Child Object Permanence Stage Level Invisible Displacement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bates, E., and Snyder, L. S. The cognitive hypothesis in language development. In I. C. U2giris and J. McV. Hunt (Eds.), Research with scales of psychological development in infancy. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, in press.Google Scholar
  2. Bates, E., Camaioni, L., and Volterra, V. The acquisition of performatives prior to speech. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1975, 21, 205–226.Google Scholar
  3. Bell, S. M. The development of the concept of object as related to infant attachment. Child Development, 1970, 41, 291–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bower, T. G. R. Development in infancy. San Francisco: Freeman, 1974.Google Scholar
  5. Bower, T. G. R. Infant perception of the third dimension and object development. In L. B. Cohen and P. Salapatek (Eds.), Infant perception (Vol. 2 ). New York: Academic Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  6. Brainerd, C. J. The stage question in cognitive developmental theory (with open peer commentary). The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1978, 2, 173–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bruner, J. The growth and structure of skill. In K. Connolly (Ed.), Mechanisms of motor skill development. New York: Academic Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  8. Butterworth, G. Structure of the mind in human infancy. Paper presented at the meetings of the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development, Toronto, August 1981.Google Scholar
  9. Casati, I., and LÉZine, I. Les étapes de l’intelligence sensori-motrice. Paris: Les Editions du Centre de Psychologie Appliquée, 1968.Google Scholar
  10. Case, R. Intellectual development from birth to adulthood: A neo-Piagetian interpretation. In R. Siegler (Ed.), Children’s thinking: What develops? Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1978.Google Scholar
  11. CIccHetti, D., and Mans, L. Sequences, stages, and structures in the organization of cognitive development in Down’s syndrome infants. In I. C. U2giris and J. McV. Hunt (Eds.), Research with scales of psychological development in infancy. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, in press.Google Scholar
  12. Clarke-Stewart, K. A. Interactions between mothers and their young children: Characteristics and consequences. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development,1973, 38,No. 6–7 (Serial No. 153).Google Scholar
  13. Cobos, L. F., Latham, M. C., and Stare, F. J. Will improved nutrition help to prevent mental retardation? Preventive Medicine, 1972, 1, 185–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Corman, H., and Escalona, S. Stages of sensorimotor development: A replication study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1969, 15, 351–361.Google Scholar
  15. Corrigan, R. Language development as related to stage 6 object permanence development. Journal of Child Language, 1978, 5, 173–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Curcio, F. Sensorimotor functioning and communication in mute autistic children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1978, 8, 281–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Curcio, F., and Houlihan, J. Varieties of stage organization in the sensorimotor functioning of normal and atypical populations. In I. C. giris and J. McV. Hunt (Eds.), Research with scales of psychological development in infancy. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, in press.Google Scholar
  18. Dasen, P., Inhelder, B., Lavallee, M., and Retschitzki, J. Naissance de l’intelligence chez l’enfant Baoulé de Côte d’ Ivoire. Berne: Hans Huber, 1978.Google Scholar
  19. D@Carie, TH. G. Intelligence and affectivity in early childhood. New York: International Universities Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  20. Carie, TH. G. La réaction du jeune enfant a la personne étrangère. Montreal: Les Presses de l’Université de Montréal, 1972.Google Scholar
  21. Donovan, W. L., and Leavitt, L. A. Early cognitive development and its relation to maternal physiologic and behavioral responsiveness. Child Development, 1978, 49, 1251–1254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dunst, C. J. A clinical and educational manual for use with the U2giris and Hunt Scales of Infant Psychological Development. Baltimore, Md.: University Park Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  23. Dunst, C. J., Brassell, W. R., and Rheingover, R. M. Structural and organizational features of sensorimotor intelligence among retarded infants and toddlers. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 1981, 51, 133–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Escalona, S., and Corman, H. Albert Einstein scales of sensorimotor development. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychiatry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, no date.Google Scholar
  25. Fischer, K. W. A theory of cognitive development: The control and construction of hierarchies of skills. Psychological Review, 1980, 87, 477–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rth, H. G. Piaget, IQ and the nature-nurture controversy. Human Development, 1973, 16, 61–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Golden, M., and Birns, B. Social class and cognitive development in infancy. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1968, 14, 139–149.Google Scholar
  28. Gratch, G. Recent studies based on Piaget’s view of object concept development. In L. B. Cohen and P. Salapatek (Eds.), Infant perception (Vol. 2 ). New York: Academic Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  29. Gratch, G. Review of Piagetian infancy research. In W. F. Overton and J. McC. Gallagher (Eds.), Knowledge and development (Vol. 1 ). New York: Plenum Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  30. Gustafson, G. E., Green, J. A., and West, M. J. The infant’s changing role in mother-infant games: The growth of social skills. Infant Behavior and Development, 1979, 2, 301–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Haith, M., andCampos, J. J. Human infancy. In Annual review of psychology. Palo Alto, Ca.: Annual Reviews, 1977.Google Scholar
  32. Harding, C., and Golinkoff, R. The origins of intentional vocalizations in prelinguistic infants. Child Development, 1979, 50, 33–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hunt, J. McV. Intelligence and experience. New York: Ronald, 1961.Google Scholar
  34. Hunt, J. Mcv. Early psychological development and experience. Worcester, Ma.: Clark University Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  35. Hunt, J. Mcv., Mohandessi, K., Ghodssi, M., and Akiyama, M. The psychological development of orphanage-reared infants: Interventions with outcomes (Tehran). Genetic Psychology Monographs, 1976, 94, 177–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Ingram, D. Sensori-motor intelligence and language development. In A. Lock (Ed.), Action, gesture and symbol. New York: Academic Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  37. Jacobson, S. W. Matching behavior in the young infant. Child Development, 1979, 50, 425–430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kahn, J. V. Relationship of Piaget’s sensorimotor period to language acquisition of pro- foundly retarded children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1975, 79, 640–643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Kahn, J. V. Utility of the Uigiris and Hunt Scales of sensorimotor development with severely and profoundly retarded children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1976, 80, 663–665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kahn, J. V. Uses of the scales of psychological development with mentally retarded populations. In I. C. Uzgiris and J. McV. Hunt (Eds.), Research with scales of psychological development in infancy. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, in press.Google Scholar
  41. Kaye, K., and Marcus, J. Infant imitation: The sensory-motor agenda. Developmental Psychology, 1981, 17, 258–265.Google Scholar
  42. King, W. L., and Seegmiller, B. Performance of 14 to 22-month old black, firstborn male infants on two tests of cognitive development. Developmental Psychology, 1973, 8, 317–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kohen-Raz, R. Scalogram analysis of some developmental sequences of infant behavior as measured by the Bayley infant scale of mental development. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 1967, 76, 3–21.Google Scholar
  44. Kopp, C. B., Sigman, M., and Parmelee, A. H. Ordinality and sensory-motor series. Child Development, 1973, 44, 821–823.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kopp, C. B., Sigman, M., and Parmelee, A. H. Longitudinal study of sensorimotor development. Developmental Psychology, 1974, 10, 687–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kopp, C. B., Khoka, E. W., and Sigman, M. A comparison of sensorimotor development among infants in India and the United States. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 1977, 8, 435–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kramer, J. A., Hill, K. T., and Cohen, L. B. Infants’ development of object permanence: A refined methodology and new evidence for Piaget’s hypothesized ordinality. Child Development, 1975, 46, 149–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Langer, J. The origins of logic: Six to twelve months. New York: Academic Press, 1980. Langer, J. Logic in infancy. Cognition, 1981, 10, 181–186.Google Scholar
  49. Lewis, M., and Brooks-Gunn, J. Social cognition and the acquisition of self. New York: Plenum Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  50. Lewis, M., and Mcgurk, H. Infant intelligence. Science, 1972, 178, 1174–1177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zine, I., Stambak, M., and Casati, I. Les étapes de l’intelligence sensorimotrice. Paris: Les Editions du Centre de Psychologie Appliquée, 1969.Google Scholar
  52. Mahoney, G., Glover, A., and Finger, I. Relationship between language and sensorimotor development of Down Syndrome and nonretarded children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1981, 86, 21–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. McCall, R. B., Hogarty, P., and Hurlburt, N. Transitions in infant sensorimotor development and the prediction of childhood IQ. American Psychologist,1972, 27,728748.Google Scholar
  54. McCall, R. B., Eichorn, D. H., and Hogarty, P. S. Transitions in early mental development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development,1977, 42,No. 3 (Serial No. 171).Google Scholar
  55. McCune-Nicolich, L. Toward symbolic functioning: Structure of early pretend games and potential parallels with language. Child Development, 1981, 52, 785–797.Google Scholar
  56. Mehrabian, A., and Williams, M. Piagetian measures of cognitive development up to age two. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 1971, 1, 113–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Meltzoff, A. N., and Moore, M. K. Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. Science, 1977, 198, 75–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Miller, D. J., Cohen, L. B., and Hill, K. T. A methodological investigation of Piaget’s theory of object concept development in the sensory-motor period. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1970, 9, 59–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nicolich, L. Mcc. Beyond sensorimotor intelligence: Assessment of symbolic maturity through analysis of pretend play. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1977, 23, 89–101.Google Scholar
  60. Paraskevopoulos, J., and Hunt, J. McV. Object construction and imitation under differing conditions of rearing. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1971, 119, 301–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Piaget, J. Psychology of intelligence. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1950.Google Scholar
  62. Piaget, J. The origins of intelligence in children. New York: Norton, 1952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Piaget, J. The construction of reality in the child. New York: Basic Books, 1954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Piaget, J. Play, dreams, and imitation in childhood. New York: Norton, 1962.Google Scholar
  65. Piaget, J. Genetic epistemology. New York: Columbia University Press, 1970. (a)Google Scholar
  66. Piaget, J. Piaget’s theory. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Carmichael’s manual of child psychology.New York: Wiley, 1970. (b)Google Scholar
  67. Piaget, J. Biology and knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971. (a)Google Scholar
  68. Piaget, J. The theory of stages in cognitive development. In D. R. Green, H. P. Ford, and G. B. Flamer (Eds.), Measurement and Piaget. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971. (b)Google Scholar
  69. Piaget, J. The development of thought: Equilibration of cognitive structures. New York: Viking Press, 1977. (a)Google Scholar
  70. Piaget, J. The role of action in the development of thinking. In W. F. Overton and J. McC. Gallagher (Eds.), Knowledge and development (Vol. 1). New York: Plenum Press, 1977. (b)Google Scholar
  71. Piaget, J., and Infielder, B. The psychology of the child. New York: Basic Books, 1969.Google Scholar
  72. Pinard, A., and Laurendeau, M. Stage in Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory: Exegesis of a concept. In D. Elkind and J. H. Flavell (Eds.), Studies in cognitive development. New York: Oxford University Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  73. Rogers, S. J. Characteristics of the cognitive development of profoundly retarded children. Child Development, 1977, 48, 837–843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Schaffer, H. R. (Ed.). Studies in mother—infant interaction. New York: Academic Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  75. Seibert, J. Developmental assessment for early intervention: Testing a cognitive stage model. Technical report from the Mailman Center for Child Development, University of Miami, 1980.Google Scholar
  76. Siegel, L. Infant perceptual, cognitive, and motor behaviors as predictors of subsequent cognitive and language development. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 1979, 33, 382–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Siegel, L. Infant tests as predictors of cognitive and language development at two years. Child Development, 1981, 52, 545–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Silverstein, A. B., Brownlee, L., Hubbell, M., and Mclain, R. E. Comparison of two sets of Piagetian scales with severely and profoundly retarded children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1975, 80, 292–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Silverstein, A. B., Mclain, R. E., Brownlee, L., and Hubbell, M. Structure of ordinal scales of psychological development in infancy. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1976, 36, 355–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Simoneau, K., and DÉCarie, TH. G. Cognition and perception in the object concept. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 1979, 33, 396–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Steckol, K., and Leonard, L. Sensorimotor development and the use of prelinguistic performatives. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 1981, 24, 262–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Super, C. M. Behavioral development in infancy. In R. H. Munroe, R. L. Munroe, and B. B. Whiting (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural human development. New York: Garland Stpm Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  83. Trevarthen, C. The foundations of intersubjectivity: Development of interpersonal and cooperative understanding in infants. In D. R. Olson (Ed.), The social foundations of language and thought. New York: Norton, 1980.Google Scholar
  84. Ugiris, I. C. Some antecedents of the object concept. Paper presented at a symposium on the object concept at the meetings of Epa, Philadelphia, April 1969.Google Scholar
  85. Ugiris, I. C. Patterns of cognitive development in infancy. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly,1973, 19, 181–204. (a)Google Scholar
  86. Uzgiris, I. C. Infant development from a Piagetian approach: Introduction to a symposium. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association Convention, Montreal, 1973. (b)Google Scholar
  87. U2Giris, I. C. Plasticity and structure. In I. C. Uzgiris and F. Weizmann (Eds.), The structuring of experience. New York: Plenum Press, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. UzGiris, I. C. Two functions of imitation during infancy. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 1981, 4, 1–12.Google Scholar
  89. U2Giris, I. C., and Hunt, J. McV. An instrument for assessing infant psychological development. Unpublished manuscript, 1966.Google Scholar
  90. U2Giris, I. C., and Hunt, J. McV. Toward ordinal scales of infant psychological development. Unpublished manuscript, 1972.Google Scholar
  91. Uzgiris, I. C., and Hunt, J. McV. Assessment in infancy. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  92. Vygotsky, L. S. Mind in society. Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard University Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  93. Wachs, T. D. Relation of infants’ performance on Piaget scales between twelve and twenty-four months and their Stanford-Binet performance at thirty-one months. Child Development, 1975, 46, 929–935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wachs, T. D. Utilization of a Piagetian approach in the investigation of early experience effects. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1976, 22, 11–30.Google Scholar
  95. Wachs, T. D. Proximal experience and early cognitive-intellectual development: The physical environment. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1979, 25, 3–41.Google Scholar
  96. Wachs, T. D. Early experience and early cognitive development: The search for specificity. In I. C. Uzgiris and J. McV. Hunt (Eds.), Research with scales of psychological development in infancy. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, in press.Google Scholar
  97. Wachs, T. D., and Hubert, N. C. Changes in the structure of cognitive-intellectual performance during the second year of life. Infant Behavior and Development, 1981, 4, 151–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wachs, T. D., UzGiris, I. C., and Hunt, J. Mcv. Cognitive development in infants of different age levels and from different environmental backgrounds. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1971, 17, 283–317.Google Scholar
  99. Wohlwill, J. F. The study of behavioral development. New York: Academic Press, 1973. Woodward, M. The behavior of idiots interpreted by Piaget’s theory of sensorimotor development. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 1959, 29, 60–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zachry, W. Ordinality and interdependence of representation and language development in infancy. Child Development, 1978, 49, 681–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ina Č. Užgiris
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyClark UniversityWorcesterUSA

Personalised recommendations