Advertisement

Origins of Infant Intelligence Testing

  • Jeanne Brooks-Gunn
  • Marsha Weinraub

Abstract

Infant intelligence tests, like all other psychological tests, have their roots in the intelligence testing movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Infancy was never the focus of the early test developers and was studied only because idiots, the lowest classification of the mentally retarded, were thought to exhibit the mental abilities of a 2-year-old (Binet and Simon, 1905a,b). However, infants were not entirely neglected, since the child study movement led by Darwin and Preyer increased interest in the early development of the species. As the testing movement gained momentum and branched out into more areas in the 1920s, intensive studies of infants and preschoolers were initiated, leading to the development of normative scales and intelligence tests. These tests of the 1920s and 1930s were rapidly accepted and were used to investigate stability, reliability, and predictive validity from infancy to childhood. Two other waves of tests were developed, in the 1960s and in the 1970s, with the focus of the 1970s tests being somewhat different from those preceding them.

Keywords

Predictive Validity Mental Development Nursery School Infant Development Mental Test 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adamson, L., Als, H., Tronick, E., and Brazelton, T. B. A priori profiles for the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment. Mimeo, Child Development Unit, Children’s Hospital, Boston, 1975.Google Scholar
  2. Aleksandrowicz, M., and Aleksandrowicz, D. Pain-relieving drugs as predictors of infant behavior variability. Child Development, 1974, 45, 935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Als, H., Lester, B. M., and Brazelton, T. B. Dynamics of the behavioral organization of the premature infant: A theoretical perspective. In T. M. Field, A. M. Sostek, S. Goldberg, and H. H. Shuman (Eds.), Infants born at risk: Behavior and development. Jamaica, N.Y.: Spectrum Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  4. Ames, L. B. Predictive value of infant behavior examinations. In J. Hellmuth (Ed.), Exceptional infant (Vol. 1): The normal infant. Seattle, Wash.: Straub and Hellmuth, 1967. Anastasi, A. Psychological testing. New York: Macmillan, 1961.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, D. The predictive value of infancy tests in relation to intelligence at five years. Child Development, 1939, 10 (3), 203–212.Google Scholar
  6. Anderson, R. M., Miles, M., and Matheny, P.A. Communicative evaluation chart from infancy to five years. Cambridge, Mass.: Educators Publishing Service, 1963.Google Scholar
  7. Bakow, H., Sameroff, A., Kelly, P., and Zax, M. Relation between newborn and mother-child interactions at four months. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Philadelphia, 1973.Google Scholar
  8. Banham, K. M. Ring and peg tests of behavior development. Munster, Ind.: Psychometric Affiliates, 1964.Google Scholar
  9. Bayley, N. The California first year mental scale. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1933. (a)Google Scholar
  10. Bayley, N. Mental growth during the first three years. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 1933, 14, 1–92. (b)Google Scholar
  11. Bayley, N. Consistency and variability in the growth of intelligence from birth to 18 years. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1949, 75, 165–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bayley, N. Bayley scales of infant development. New York: The Psychological Corporation, 1969.Google Scholar
  13. Bell, S. B. The development of the concept of the object as related to infant-mother attachment. Child Development, 1970, 41, 191–211.Google Scholar
  14. Binet, A., and Henri, V. La mémoire des phrases. L’Année Psychologique, 1895, 1, 24–59. Binet, A., and Henri, V. La psychologie individuelle. L’Année Psychologique, 1896, 2, 411–465.Google Scholar
  15. Binet, A., and Simon, T. Méthodes nouvelles pour le diagnostic du niveau intellectuel des anormaux. L’Année Psychologique, 1905, 11, 191–244. (a)Google Scholar
  16. Binet, A., and Simon, T. Application des méthodes nouvelles au diagnostic du niveau intellectuel chez les infants normaux et anormaux d’hospice et d’école primaire. L’Année Psychologique, 1905, 11, 245–266. (b)Google Scholar
  17. Binet, A., and Simon, T. Le développement de l’intelligence chez les enfants. L’Année Psychologique, 1908, 14, 1–94.Google Scholar
  18. Binet, A., and Simon, T. [Mentally defective children] (W. B. Drummond, trans.) London: Edward Arnold, 1914. (Originally published, 1907.)Google Scholar
  19. Bowlby, J. Maternal care and mental health. World Health Organization Monograph Series, 1952 (No. 2).Google Scholar
  20. Brackbill, Y., Kane, J., Manniello, R. L., and Abramson, M. D. Obstetric meperidine usage and assessment of neonatal status. Anesthesiology, 1974, 40, 116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bradway, K. P. An experimental study of the factors associated with Stanford-Binet IQ changes from the preschool to the junior high school. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1945, 66, 107–128.Google Scholar
  22. Braen, B. B. An evaluation of the Northwestern infant intelligence test: Test B. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1961, 25, 245–248.Google Scholar
  23. Brazelton, T. B. Neonatal behavioral assessment scale. Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Boston, Mass., n.d.Google Scholar
  24. Brazelton, T. B. Neonatal behavioral assessment scale. Clinics in Developmental Medicine, No. 50. Philadelphia, Pa.: Lippincott, 1973.Google Scholar
  25. Brazelton, T. B., KosLOwsm, B., and Tronick, E. Study of the neonatal behavior in Zambian and American neonates. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 1976, 15, 97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Brazelton, T. B., Als, H., Tronick, E., and Lester, B. M. Specific neonatal measures: The Brazelton neonatal behavior assessment scale. In J. D. Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infant development. New York: Wiley, 1979.Google Scholar
  27. Brooks-Gunn, J., and Hearn, R. Early intervention and developmental dysfunction. Implications for pediatrics. Advances in Pediatrics, 1982, 29, 326–350.Google Scholar
  28. Brooks-Gunn, J., and Lewis, M. Assessing the handicapped young: Issues and solutions. Journal of the Division for Early Childhood, 1981, 84–95.Google Scholar
  29. Brooks-Gunn, J., and Lewis, M. Screening and diagnosing handicapped infants. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 1983, 3 (1), 14–28.Google Scholar
  30. Buhler, C. The first year of life. New York: John Day, 1930.Google Scholar
  31. Buhler, C., and Hetzer, H. Testing children’s development from birth to school age. New York: Farrar and Rinehart, 1935.Google Scholar
  32. Burt, C. Mental and scholastic tests. London: King, 1921.Google Scholar
  33. Bzoch, K. R., and League, R. Bzoch-League receptive—expressive language scale for the measure- ment of language skills in infancy. Gainesville, Fla.: Tree of Life Press, 1970–1971.Google Scholar
  34. Caldwell, B. M., and Drachman, R. H. Comparability of three methods of assessing the developmental level of young infants. Syracuse, N.Y.: Department of Pediatrics—Suny, Upstate Medical Center, 1964.Google Scholar
  35. Cameron, J., Livson, N., and Bayley, N. Infant vocalizations and their relationship to mature intelligence. Science, 1967, 157, 331–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Catalano, F. L., and Mccarthy, D. Infant speech as a possible predictor of later intelligence. The Journal of Psychology, 1954, 38, 203–209.Google Scholar
  37. Cat-Fell, J. Mental tests and measurements. Mind, 1890, 15, 373–381.Google Scholar
  38. Cattell, J., and Farrand, L. Physical and mental measurements of the students of Columbia University. Psychological Review, 1896, 3, 618–648.Google Scholar
  39. Cattell, P. The measurement of intelligence of infants and young children. New York: The Psychological Corporation, 1940, 1960, 1966.Google Scholar
  40. Cavanaugh, M. C., Cohen, I., Dunphy, D., Ringwall, E. A., and Goldberg, I.D. Prediction from the Cattell infant intelligence scale. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1957, 21, 33–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Chaille, S. E. Infants: Their chronological process. New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal, 1887, 14, 893–912.Google Scholar
  42. Crissey, O. L. Mental development as related to institutional residence and educational achievement. University of Iowa Studies on Child Welfare, 1937, 13(1).Google Scholar
  43. Cunningham, B. V. Infant IQ ratings evaluated after an interval of seven years. Journal of Experimental Education, 1934, 11 (2), 84–87.Google Scholar
  44. Darwin, C. The origin of species. London: John Murray, 1859.Google Scholar
  45. Darwin, C. Expression of the emotions in man and animals. New York: D. Appleton, 1973. (Originally published, 1872.)Google Scholar
  46. Darwin, C. A biographical sketch of an infant. Mind, 1877, 2, 285–294.Google Scholar
  47. DayCareAndChildDevelopmentCouncil OF America, Inc. Evaluating Children’s progress: A rating scale for children in day care. Washington, D.C.: Author, 1973. Decarie, TH. G. Intelligence and affectivity in early childhood. New York: International Universities Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  48. Doll, E. A. Measurement of social competence. Educational Test Bureau, 1953. ( Available from American Guidance Service, Circle Pines, Minnesota. )Google Scholar
  49. Driscoll, G. P. The development status of the preschool child as a prognosis of future development. Child Development Monographs, 1933, No. 13.Google Scholar
  50. Escalona, S. The use of infant tests for predictive purposes. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, July 1950.Google Scholar
  51. Escalona, S. K., and Corman, H. Albert Einstein scales of sensori-motor development. New York: Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, 1969.Google Scholar
  52. Escalona, S. K., and Moriarty, A. Prediction of school-age intelligence from infant tests. Child Development, 1961, 32, 597–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Esquirol, J. D. Des maladies mentales considerées sous les rapports médical, hygienique et médico-légal. Paris: J. B. Baillière, 1838.Google Scholar
  54. Fagan, J. F. A visual recognition test of infant intelligence. Paper presented at the International Conference on Infant Studies, Austin, Texas, March 1982.Google Scholar
  55. Fagan, J. F., and Mcgrath, S. K. Infant recognition memory and later intelligence. Intelligence, 1981, 5, 121–130.Google Scholar
  56. Fantz, R. L., and Nevis, S. Fantz-Nevis visual preference test. Cleveland: Case-Western Reserve, 1967.Google Scholar
  57. Fillmore, E. A. Iowa tests for young children. University of Iowa Studies on Child Welfare, 1936, 11, No. 4.Google Scholar
  58. Frandsen, A., and Barlow, F. P. Influence of the nursery school on mental growth. 39th Yearbook of the National Society of Education, 1940, Part II, 143–148.Google Scholar
  59. Frankenburg, W. K., and Dodds, J. B. Denver developmental screening test. Denver, Colo.: Ladoca Publishing Foundation, 1967.Google Scholar
  60. Freedman, D. G., and Freedman, N. Behavioral differences between Chinese-American and European-American newborns. Nature, 1969, 224, 122.Google Scholar
  61. Furfey, P. H., and Muehlenbein, J. The validity of infant intelligence tests. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1932, 40, 219–223.Google Scholar
  62. Gallagher, J. J. Clinical judgment and the Cattell intelligence scale. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1953, 17, 303–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Galton, F. Hereditary genius. London: MacMillan, 1869.Google Scholar
  64. Gesell, A. The mental growth of the preschool child. New York: MacMillan, 1926. Gesell, A. Infancy and human growth. New York: MacMillan, 1928.Google Scholar
  65. Gesell, A. The ontogenesis of infant behavior. In D. Carmichael (Ed.), Manual of child psychology. New York: Wiley, 1954.Google Scholar
  66. Gesell, A., and Amatruda, C. Developmental diagnosis. New York: Paul B. Holber, 1954. Gesell, A., and Amatruda, C. Developmental diagnosis: Normal and abnormal child development, clinical methods and practical applications. New York: Harper, 1962.Google Scholar
  67. Gesell, A., and Thompson, H. Infant behavior, its genesis and growth. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1934.Google Scholar
  68. Gilbert, J. A. Research on the mental and physical development of school children. Studies of Yale Psychological Laboratory, 1894, 2, 40–100.Google Scholar
  69. Gilliland, A. R. The Northwestern intelligence tests. Examiner’s manual. Test A: Test for infants 4–12 weeks old. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1949.Google Scholar
  70. Gilliland, A. R. The Northwestern intelligence tests. Examiner’s manual. Test B: Test for infants 13–36 weeks old. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1951.Google Scholar
  71. Goddard, H. H. The Binet and Simon tests of intellectual capacity. The Training School, 1908, 5, 3–9.Google Scholar
  72. Goddard, H. H. Four hundred feeble minded children classified by the Binet method. Pedagogical Seminary, 1910, 17, 387–397. (a)Google Scholar
  73. Goddard, H. H. A measuring scale for intelligence. The Training School, 1910, 6, 146–155. (b)Google Scholar
  74. Goddard, H. H. Two thousand normal children measured by the Binet measuring scale of intelligence. Pedagogical Seminary, 1911, 18, 232–259.Google Scholar
  75. Golden, M., and Birns, B. Piaget object scale. New York: Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, 1968.Google Scholar
  76. Goodenough, F. L. The Kuhlmann-Binet tests for children of preschool age. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1928. (a)Google Scholar
  77. Goodenough, F. L. A preliminary report on the effects of nursery school training upon intelligence tests scores of young children. 27th Yearbook of the National Society of Education, 1928, 361–369. (b)Google Scholar
  78. Goodenough, F. L. Look to the evidence: A critique of recent experiments on raising the IQ. Education Methods, 1939, 19, 73–79.Google Scholar
  79. Goodenough, F. L. New evidence on environmental influence on intelligence. 39th Yearbook of the National Society of Education, 1940, Part I, 307–365.Google Scholar
  80. Goodenough, F. L. Mental testing. New York: Rinehart, 1949.Google Scholar
  81. Griffiths, R. The abilities of babies. London: University of London Press, 1954. Hallowell, D. K. Mental tests for preschool children. Psychological Clinic, 1925–1927, 16, 235–276.Google Scholar
  82. Hallowell, D. K. Validity of mental tests for young children. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1941, 58, 265–286.Google Scholar
  83. Harms, I. E. A study of some variables affecting the reliability of intelligence test scores during late infancy. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, State University of Iowa, 1951.Google Scholar
  84. Herring, R. M. An experimental study of the reliability of the Buhler baby tests. Journal of Experimental Education, 1937, 6 (2), 147–160.Google Scholar
  85. Hindley, C. B. The Griffiths scale of infant development: Scores and predictions from 3 to 18 months. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1960, 1, 99–112.Google Scholar
  86. Hindley, C. B. Stability and change in abilities up to 5 years: Group trends Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1965, 6, 85–99.Google Scholar
  87. Horowitz, F. D., and Brazelton, T. B. Research with the Brazelton Neonatal Scale. In T. B. Brazelton (Ed.), Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. National Spastics Society Monograph. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1973.Google Scholar
  88. Horowitz, F. D., Aleksandrowicz, M., Ashton, L. J., Tims, S., Mccluskey, K., Culp, R., and Gallas, H. American and Uruguayan infants: Reliabilities, maternal drug histories and population difference using the Brazelton Scale. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, 1973.Google Scholar
  89. Horowitz, F. D., Sullivan, J. W., and Linn, P. Stability and instability in the newborn infant: The quest for elusive threads. In A. J. Sameroff (Ed.), Organization and stability of newborn behavior: A commentary on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale. (With commentary by Robert N. Emde.) Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 1978, 43(5–6, Serial No. 177).Google Scholar
  90. Horrocks, J. E. Assessment of behavior. Columbus, Oh.: C. E. Merrill, 1964. Hunt, J. McV. Intelligence and experience. New York: Ronald, 1961.Google Scholar
  91. Hunt, J. McV., and Bayley, N. Explorations into patterns of mental development and prediction from the Bayley Scales of infant development. Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology, 1971, 5, 52–71.Google Scholar
  92. Illingworth, R. S. The development of the infant and young child, normal and abnormal. Baltimore, Md.: Williams and Wilkins, 1972. (Originally published, 1960.)Google Scholar
  93. Illingworth, R. S. The predictive value of developmental tests in the first year, with special reference to the diagnosis of mental subnormality. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1961, 2, 210–215.Google Scholar
  94. Itard, J. G. [The wild boy of Aveyron] (G. Humphrey and M. Humphrey, trans.) New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1938. (Originally published, 1801.)Google Scholar
  95. Jastrow, J. Some anthropological and psychological tests on college students—a preliminary survey. American Journal of Psychology, 1892, 4, 420–427.Google Scholar
  96. Knobloch, H., and Pasamanick, B. An evaluation of the consistency and predictive value of the forty week Gesell development schedule. In C. Shagass and B. Pasamanick (Eds.), Shagass and B. 1960, No. 13, 10–31.Google Scholar
  97. Knobloch, H., and Pasamanick, B. Prediction from assessment of neuromotor and intellectual status in infancy. Paper presented at American PsychopathologicalAssociation meeting, February 1966.Google Scholar
  98. Kraepelin, E. Der psychologische Versuch in der Psychiatrie. Psychologische Arbeiten, 1895, 1, 1–91.Google Scholar
  99. Kuhlmann, F. Binet and Simori s system for measuring the intelligence of children. Journal of Psycho-Asthenics, 1911, 15, 76–92.Google Scholar
  100. Kuhlmann, F. A handbook of mental tests. Baltimore, Md.: Warwick and York, 1922. Lester, B., and Zeskind, P. Brazelton Scale and physical size correlates of neonatal cry features. Infant Behavior and Development, 1978, 4, 393.Google Scholar
  101. Lewis, M., and Brooks-Gunn, J. Social cognition and the acquisition of self. New York: Plenum Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  102. Lewis, M., and Brooks-Gunn, J. Attention and intelligence. Intelligence, 1981, 5(3). (a) Lewis, M., and Brooks-Gunn, J. Visual attention at three months as a predictor of cognitive functioning at two years of age. Intelligence, 1981, 5, 131–140. (b)Google Scholar
  103. Lewis, M., and Brooks-Gunn, J. Developmental models and assessment issues. In N. Anastasiow, W. Frankenburg, and A. Fandal (Eds.), Identifying the developmentally delayed child. Maryland: University Park Press, 1982.Google Scholar
  104. Lewis, M., and Michalson, L. Children’s emotions and moods: Theory and measurement. New York: Plenum Press, 1983.Google Scholar
  105. Linfert, H. E., and Hierholzer, H. M. A scale for measuring the mental development of infants during the first years of life. Baltimore, Md.: Williams and Wilkins, 1928.Google Scholar
  106. Macfarlane, J. W. The uses and predictive limitations of intelligence tests in infants and young children. Bulletin Who, 1953, 9, 409–415.Google Scholar
  107. Macrae, J. M. Retests of children given mental tests as infants. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1955, 87, 111–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Mccall, R. B., Hogarty, P. S., and Hurlburt, N. Transitions in infant sensorimotor development and the prediction of childhood IQ. American Psychologist, 1972, 27, 728–748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Mccall, R. B., Eichorn, D. H., and Hogarty, P. S. Transitions in early mental development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 1977, 42(3, Serial No. 171).Google Scholar
  110. McGraw, M. B. Appraising test responses of infants and young children. The Journal of Psychology, 1942, 14, 89–100.Google Scholar
  111. McHuch, G. Changes in IQ at the public school kindergarten level. Psychology Monographs, 1943, 55, No. 2.Google Scholar
  112. Mecham, M. J. Verbal language development scale. Circle Pines, Minn.: American Guidance Service, 1971.Google Scholar
  113. Munsterberg, H. Zur individual Psychologie. Centralblatt für Nervenheilkunde und Psychiatric, 1891, 14.Google Scholar
  114. Nelson, V. L., and Richards, T. W. Studies in mental development: I. Performance on Gesell items at 6 months and its predictive value for performance on mental tests at 2 and 3 years. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1938, 52, 303–325.Google Scholar
  115. Peterson, J. Early conceptions and tests of intelligence. New York: World Book, 1925. Powell, L. F. The effect of extra stimulation and maternal involvement on the develop-ment of low birth weight infants and on maternal behaviors. Child Development, 1974, 45, 106.Google Scholar
  116. Prechtl, H., and Beintema, D. The neurological examination of the full term newborn infant. London: Heineman, 1964.Google Scholar
  117. Preyer, W. The mind of the child. New York: D. Appleton, 1888. (Originally published, 1882.)Google Scholar
  118. RIccIUTI, H. N. Object grouping and selective ordering behavior in infants 12 to 24 months old. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly1965 11129–148.Google Scholar
  119. Richards, T. W., and Nelson, V. L. Studies in mental development: II. Analyses of abilities tested at age of 6 months by the Gesell schedule. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1938, 52, 327–331.Google Scholar
  120. Richards, T. W., and Nelson, V. L. Abilities of infants during the first 18 months. Journal of Genetic Psychology1939, 55, 299–318.Google Scholar
  121. Ringwall, E. A. Prelinguistic infant vocalization analysis. Buffalo, N.Y.: State University of New York, 1965.Google Scholar
  122. Roberts, J. A. F., and Sedgley, E. Intelligence testing of full-term and premature children by repeated assessments. In C. Banks and P. L. Broadhurst (Eds.), Studies in psychology. London: University of London Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  123. Rosenblith, J. F. Manual for behavioral examination of the neonate as modified by Rosenblith from Graham. Providence, R.I.: Brown Duplicating Service, 1961.Google Scholar
  124. Scarr, S., and Williams, M. L. The effects of early stimulation on low birth weight infants. Child Development, 1973, 44, 94.Google Scholar
  125. Seguin, E. Idiocy: Its treatment by the physiological method. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1907. (Reprinted from the original edition of 1886.)Google Scholar
  126. Sharp, S. E. Individual psychology: A study in psychological method. American Journal of Psychology1898–1899 10329–391.Google Scholar
  127. Shield Institute For Retarded Children. Early identification and treatment of the infant retardate and his family. New York: Author, 1968.Google Scholar
  128. Shinn, M. The biography of a baby. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1900.Google Scholar
  129. Shirley, M. The first two years. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1933. Shotwell, A. M., and Gilliland, A. R. A preliminary scale for the measurement of the mentality of infants. Child Development1943 14167–177.Google Scholar
  130. Simon, T. Recherches anthropométriques sur 223 garçons anormaux ages de 8 à 23 ans. L’Année Psychologique, 1900, 6, 191–247.Google Scholar
  131. Simon, A. J., and Bass, L. G. Toward a validation of infant testing. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry1956 26340–350.Google Scholar
  132. Simpson, B. R. The wandering IQ: Is it time to settle down? Journal of Psychology1939 7351–367.Google Scholar
  133. Skodak, M. Children in foster homes; A study of mental development. University of Iowa Studies on Child Welfare1939, 16(1).Google Scholar
  134. Stern, W. Psychology of early childhood up to the sixth year of age. New York: Henry Hal, 1924. (Originally published, 1914.)Google Scholar
  135. Stott, L. H., and Ball, R. S. Evaluation of infant and preschool mental tests. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 1965, 30(3), Serial No. 101.Google Scholar
  136. Strayer, G. D. Age and grade census of schools and colleges (Report of the U.S. Bureau ofGoogle Scholar
  137. Education, Bulletin #5). Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1911. Stutsman, R. Mental measurement of preschool children. New York: World Book, 1931. Symmes, E. An infant testing service as an integral part of a child guidance clinic. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1933, 3, 409–430.Google Scholar
  138. Terman, L. M. The measurement of intelligence. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1916.Google Scholar
  139. Terman, L. M., Kohs, S. C., Chamberlain, M. B., Anderson, M., and Henry, B. The vocabulary test as a measure of intelligence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1918, 9, 452–466.Google Scholar
  140. Thomas, H. Psychological assessment instruments for use with human infants. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1970, 16, 179–224.Google Scholar
  141. Thorndike, R. L. Constancy of the IQ. Psychological Bulletin, 1940, 37, 167–186. Trabue, M. R., and Stockbridge, F. P. Measure your mind. New York: Doubleday, 1922.Google Scholar
  142. Tronick, E., and Brazelton, T. B. Clinical uses of the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment. In B. Z. Friedlander, G. M. Steritt, and G. E. Kirk, (Eds.), Exceptional infant (Vol. I II ). New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1975.Google Scholar
  143. U2Girts, I. C., and Hunt, J. McV. An instrument for assessing infant psychological development. Mimeographed paper, Psychological Development Laboratories, University of Illinois, 1966.Google Scholar
  144. Waldrop, M. F., Bell, R. Q., Mclaughlin, B., and Halverson, C. F. Newborn minor physical anomalies predict short attention span, peer aggression and impulsivity at age 3. Science, 1978, 179, 563–564.Google Scholar
  145. Wallin, J. E. W. The peg form boards. Psychological Clinician, 1918, 12, 40–53. Watson, J. B., and Watson, R. R. Studies in infant psychology, Scientific Monthly, 1921, 13, 493–515.Google Scholar
  146. Wellman, B. L. Some new bases for interpretation of the IQ. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1932, 41, 116–126. (a)Google Scholar
  147. Wellman, B. L. The effects of preschool attendance upon the IQ. Journal of Experimental Education, 1932, 1, 48–69. (b)Google Scholar
  148. Werner, E., and Bayley, N. The reliability of Bayleÿ s revised scale of mental and motor development during the first year of life. Child Development, 1966, 37, 39–50.Google Scholar
  149. Werner, E. E., HoNzik, M. P., and Smith, R. S. Prediction of intelligence and achievement at 10 years from 20-month pediatric and psychological examinations. Child Development, 1968, 39, 1063–1075.Google Scholar
  150. Wilson, R. S. Testing infant intelligence. Science, 1973, 182, 734–739.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Wissler, C. L. The correlation of mental and physical tests. Psychology Review Monograph Supplement, 1901, 3(6).Google Scholar
  152. Wittenborn, J. R. The placement of adoptive children. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas, 1957.Google Scholar
  153. Wittenborn, J. R., Astrachan, M. A., Degougar, M. W., Grant, W. W., Janoff, I. E.Google Scholar
  154. Kugel, R. B., Myers, B. J., Riess, A., and Russell, E. C. A study of adoptive children: II. The predictive validity of the Yale developmental examination of infant behavior. Psychological Monographs, 1956, 70(2).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeanne Brooks-Gunn
    • 1
  • Marsha Weinraub
    • 2
  1. 1.Educational Testing ServiceInstitute for the Study of Exceptional Children PrincetonUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyTemple UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations