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Mental Retardation

Developmental Issues in Cognitive and Social Adaptation
  • Sharon Landesman-Dwyer
  • Earl C. Butterfield

Abstract

To study intelligence, investigators have compared people of different ages, different biological conditions, and different environments and have examined the results of different tests of intelligence. Such comparisons have been guided by five assumptions: (1) intelligence is distributed along a continuum, (2) intelligence can be measured, even though present tests are imperfect, (3) everyone has some intelligence, (4) a person’s intelligence is fairly stable over time and settings, and (5) intelligence matters for individuals, groups, and societies. The assumption of a continuum means that some people have more intelligence and some people have less. This chapter is about less intelligence. It is about the children who constitute the lower range of the continuum. Mental retardation, mental deficiency, and mental subnormality are the terms most frequently used to denote the condition of much lower-than-average intelligence.

Keywords

Mental Retardation Adaptive Behavior Normal Child Mental Deficiency Retarded Child 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sharon Landesman-Dwyer
    • 1
  • Earl C. Butterfield
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of EducationUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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