Social Class and Infant Intelligence

  • Mark Golden
  • Beverly Birns


There is generally widespread agreement that social-class differences in intellectual development are present in older preschool children, as reflected in their performance on standard intelligence tests beginning during the third year of life and later, in their academic achievement in school. However, there is disagreement about whether such differences are present in infancy. There has also been a great deal of controversy about how social-class differences in intellectual development can best be explained or interpreted, as well as strong disagreement about what can or should be done about such differences.


Social Class Intellectual Performance Poor Child Response Decrement Mark Golden 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark Golden
    • 1
  • Beverly Birns
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryAlbert Einstein College of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Social Science Interdisciplinary ProgramState University of New York at StonybrookStonybrookUSA

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