European Studies of Dissociation

  • Johan Vanderlinden
  • Onno Van der Hart
  • Katalin Varga

Abstract

Apart from the Netherlands and Belgium, clinical interest and research in Europe in the field of dissociation and the dissociative disorders are lagging far behind North American developments. In most European countries, strong professional ignorance and skepticism still exist. After a brief description of the clinical field in Europe, in particular in the Netherlands and Belgium, the main focus of this chapter is on European studies on dissociation and dissociative disorders. Special attention is given to studies on the development of a scale for the assessment of dissociative experiences and symptoms and on the prevalence of these phenomena in both general populations and psychiatric patient samples.

Keywords

Sexual Abuse Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Dissociative Experience Dissociative Symptom 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aldridge-Morris, R. (1989). Multiple personality: An exercise in deception. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ( 3rd ed. ). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association, (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Bernstein, E. M., and Putnam, E. W. (1986). Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 727–735.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boon, S., and Draijer, N. (1991). Diagnosing dissociative disorders in the Netherlands: A pilot study with the structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R dissociative disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 458–462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Boon, S., and Draijer, N. (1993a). Multiple personality disorder in the Netherlands: A clinical investigation of 71 patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 489–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Boon, S., and Draijer, N. (1993b). Multiple personality disorders in the Netherlands. A study on reliability and validity of the diagnosis. Amsterdam/Lisse: Swetz and Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  8. Boon, S., and Van der Hart, O. (1988a). Dissocieren als overlevingsstrategie bij fysiek en seksueel geweld [Dissociation as survival strategy for physical and sexual abuse]. Maandblad Geestelijke Volksgezondheid, 43, 1197–1207.Google Scholar
  9. Boon, S., and Van der Hart, O. (1988b). Het herkennen van dissociatieve stoornissen, in het bijzonder de multiple persoonlijkheidsstoornis [Recognition of dissociative disorders, in particular multiple personality disorder]. Maandblad Geestelijke Volksgezondheid, 43, 1208–1225.Google Scholar
  10. Boon, S., and Van der Hart, O. (1989). De behandeling van de multiple persoonlijkheidsstoornis [Treatment of multiple personality disorder]. Maandblad Geestelijke Volksgezondheid, 44, 1283–1299.Google Scholar
  11. Carlson, E. B., Putnam, E. W, Ross, C. A., (1990) A discriminant analysis on the D.E.S.: A multicenter study. In B. G. Braun and E. B. Carlson (Eds.), Dissociative disorders 1990. Proceedings of the 7th international conference on multiple personality/dissociative states (p. 141 ). Chicago: Rush.Google Scholar
  12. Chu, J. A., and Dill, D. L. (1990). Dissociative symptoms in relation to childhood physical and sexual abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 887–892.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cohen, M., Wallage, P, and Van der Hart, O. (1992). De prevalentie van dissociatieve verschijnselen en traumatische jeugdervaringen bij een RtAGG populatie [The prevalence of dissociative phenomena and traumatic experiences in childhood in population of a Regional Institute for Ambulatory Mental Health Care]. Amsterdam: Riagg Zuid/Nieuw West.Google Scholar
  14. Dalle Grave, R., Rigamanti, R., and Todisco, P. (in press). Trauma and dissociative experiences in eating disorders. European Eating Disorders Review.Google Scholar
  15. Demitrack, M. A., Putnam, E W, Brewerton, T. D., Brandt, H. A., and Gold, P. W. (1990). Relation of clinical variables to dissociative phenomena in eating disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 1184–1188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Draijer, N. (1988). Seksueel misbruik van meisfes door verwanten [Sexual abuse of girls by relatives]. The Hague: Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid.Google Scholar
  17. Draijer, N. (1990). Seksuele traumatisering in de jeugd: Gevolgen op lange termijn van seksueel misbruik van meisfes door verwanten [Sexual traumatization in childhood: Long-term consequences of sexual abuse of girls by relatives]. Amsterdam: SUA.Google Scholar
  18. Draijer, N., and Langeland, W (1993). Dissociatieve symptomen bij opgenomen psychiatrische patienten: Prevalentie en de relatie met trauma [Dissociative symptoms in psychiatric inpatients: Prevalence and the relationship with trauma]. Maandblad Geestelijke Volksgezondheid.Google Scholar
  19. Ensink, B. J. (1992). Confusing realities: A study on child sexual abuse and psychiatric symptoms. Amsterdam: VU University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Ensink, B. J., and Van Otterloo, D. (1989). A validation of the DES in the Netherlands. Dissociation, 2, 221–223.Google Scholar
  21. Everill, J., Waller, G., and MacDonald, W (1995). Dissociation in bulimic and non-eating-disordered women. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 17, 127–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fahy, T. A. (1988). The diagnosis of multiple personality disorder: A symptom of psychiatric disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 99–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Favaro, A., and Santonastaso P (1995). Dissociative experiences, trauma and eating disorders in a female college sample. Euopean Eating Disorders Review, 3, 136–200.Google Scholar
  24. Huber, M. (1995). Multiple persönlichkeiten: Überlebenden extremer gewalt. Ein handbuch. [Multiple personality disorder: Survivors of extreme abuse, A handbook.] Frankfurt: Fischer.Google Scholar
  25. Janet, P (1889). L’ Automatisme psychologique. Paris: Félix Alcan.Google Scholar
  26. Janet, P (1898). Névroses et idées fixes (Vol. 1 ). Paris: Félix Alcan.Google Scholar
  27. Janet, P (1907). The major symptoms of hysteria. London and New York: Macmillan. (Second edition with new matter: 1920. Facsimile of 1920 edition: Hafner, New York, 1965 )Google Scholar
  28. Janet, P. (1919). Les médications psychologiques. Paris: Félix Alcan. (Psychological Healing. New York: MacMillan, 1925 )Google Scholar
  29. Karle, H. (1992). The filthy lie. London: Hamish Hamilton.Google Scholar
  30. Lange, A. (1990). Vragenlijst sexuele ervaringen uit het verleden [Questionnaire of sexual experiences in the past]. University of Amsterdam: Unpublished report.Google Scholar
  31. Macilwain, I. F. (1992). Multiple personality disorder (Letter). British Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Modestin, J. (1992). Multiple personality disorder in Switzerland. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 88–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Nijenhuis, E. R. S. (1994). Dissociatieve stoornissen en psychotrauma [Dissociative disorders and psychotrauma]. Pratijkreeks Gedragstherapie. Houten, Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum.Google Scholar
  34. Nijenhuis, E. R. S. (1995). Dissociatie en leertheorie: Trauma geinduceerde dissociatie als klassiek geconditioneerde defensie [Dissociation and learning theory: trauma induced dissociation as classiclally conditioned defense]. In K. Jonker, J. J. Derksen, and E J. S. Donker (Eds.), Dissociatie: Een fenomeen opnieuw belicht [Dissociation: A phenomenon illuminated afresh]. Houten: Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum.Google Scholar
  35. Nijenhuis, E. R. S., and Vanderlinden, J. (in press). Dierlijke defensieve reacties als model voor dissociatieve reacties op psychotrauma [Animal defensive reactions as a model for trauma-induced dissociative reactions]. Tijdschript voor Psychiatrie.Google Scholar
  36. Nijenhuis, E. R. S., Spinhoven, Ph. Van Dyck, R., Van der Hart, O., and Vanderlinden, J. ( 1995, May 10–13). The development of the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire as screener for dissociative disorders. Paper presented at the Fifth Annual Spring Conference of the International Society for the Study of Dissociation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  37. Ross, C. A. (1989). Multiple personality disorder: Diagnosis, clinical features and treatment. New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  38. Ross, C. A. (1991). Epidemiology of multiple personality disorder and dissociation. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14 (3), 503–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Ross, C. A., and Ryan, L. (1989). Dissociative experiences in adolescents and college students. Dissociation, 2, 239–242.Google Scholar
  40. Ross, C. A., Norton, G. R., and Wozney, K. (1989). Multiple personality disorder: An analysis of 236 cases. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 34, 413–418.Google Scholar
  41. Ross, C. A., Joshi, S., and Currie, R. (1990). Dissociative experiences in the general population. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 1547–1552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Ross, C. A., Joshi, S., and Currie, R. (1991a). Dissociative experiences in the general population: A factor analysis. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 42, 297–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Ross, C. A., Anderson, G. A., Fleisher, W. P., and Norton, G. R. (1991b). The frequency of multiple personality disorder among psychiatric inpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 1717–1720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Russell, G. (1979). Bulimia nervosa: An ominous variant of anorexia nervosa. Psychological Medicine, 9, 429–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sainton, K., Mason, J., Mayran, L., and Ross, C. (1993). Reliability of the new form of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and the Dissociation Questionnaire (DIS-Q). In B. G. Braun and J. Parks (Eds.), Dissociative disorders 1993: Proceedings of 10th international conference on multiple personality/dissociative states (p. 125 ). Chicago: Rush.Google Scholar
  46. Saxe, G. N., Van der Kolk, B. A., Berkowitz, R., Chinman, G., Hall, K., Lieberg, G., and Schwartz, J. (1993). Dissociative disorders in psychiatric inpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 1037–1042.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Steinberg, M., Rounsaville, B., and Cicchetti, D. V. (1990). The structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R dissociative disorders: Preliminary report on a new diagnostic instrument. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 76–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Torem, M. (1986). Dissociative states presenting as an eating disorder. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 23, 137–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Van der Hart, O. (1986). Pierre Janet over hysterie en hypnose [Pierre Janet on hysteria and hypnosis]. Directieve Therapie, 5, 223–246.Google Scholar
  50. Van der Hart, O. (1988). Een overzicht van Janets werk over hysterie en hypnose [An overview of Janet’s works on hysteria and hypnosis]. Directieve Therapie, 8, 336–365.Google Scholar
  51. Van der Hart, O. (Ed.) (1991). Trauma, dissociatie en hypnose. [Trauma, dissociation and hypnosis]. Amsterdam: Swets and Zeitlinger (reprinted 1995 ).Google Scholar
  52. Van der Hart, O. (1993). The state of diagnosis and treatment of multiple personality disorder in Europe: Impressions. Dissociation, 6 (23), 102–118.Google Scholar
  53. Van der Hart, O., and Friedman, B. (1989). A reader’s guide to Pierre Janet on dissociation: A neglected intellectual heritage. Dissociation, 2 (1), 3–16.Google Scholar
  54. Van der Hart, O., and Horst, R. (1989). The dissociation theory of Pierre Janet. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2, 397–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Van der Hart, O., Brown, P., and Van der Kolk, B. A. (1989). Pierre Janet’s treatment of posttraumatic stress. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2, 379–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Van der Hart, O., Brown, P, and Turco, R. (1990). Hypnotherapy for traumatic grief: Janetian and modern approaches integrated. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 32 (4), 263–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Van der Hart, O., Steele, K., Boon, S., and Brown, P (1993a). The treatment of traumatic memories: Synthesis, realization and integration. Dissociation, 6 (23), 162–180.Google Scholar
  58. Van der Hart, O., Witztum, E., and Friedman, B. (1993b). From hysterical psychosis to reactive dissociative psychosis. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 6, 43–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Van der Kolk, B. A., and Van der Hart, O. (1989). Pierre Janet and the breakdown of adaptation in psychological trauma. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1530–1540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Van der Kolk, B. A., and van der Hart, O. (1991). The intrusive past: The flexibility of memory and the engraving of trauma. American Imago, 48, 425–454.Google Scholar
  61. Vanderlinden, J. (1993). Dissociative experiences, trauma and hypnosis. Research findings and clinical applications in eating disorders. Delft: Eburon.Google Scholar
  62. Vanderlinden, J., and Vandereycken, W. (1988). The use of hypnotherapy in the treatment of eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 7, 673–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Vanderlinden, J., and Vandereycken, W. (1990). The use of hypnosis in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 38, 101–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Vanderlinden, J., Van Dyck, R., Vandereycken, W, and Vertommen, H. (1991). Dissociative experiences in the general population of Belgium and the Netherlands. Dissociation, 4, 180–184.Google Scholar
  65. Vanderlinden, J., Vandereycken, W, Van Dyck, R., and Delacroix, O. (1992a). Hypnotizabilty and dissociation in a group of fifty eating disorder patients. Preliminary findings. In W. Bongartz (Ed.), Hypnosis, 175 years after Mesmer (pp. 291–296 ). Konstanz: Universitäts-VerlagGoogle Scholar
  66. Vanderlinden J., Van Dyck, R., Vertommen, H., and Vandereycken, W. (1992b). De Dissociation Questionnaire (DIS-Q). Ontwikkeling en karakteristieken van een dissociatievragenlijst [Development and characteristics of a dissociation questionnaire]. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor de Psychologie, 47, 134–147.Google Scholar
  67. Vanderlinden, J., Van Dyck, R., Vandereycken, W, Vertommen, H., and Verkes, R. J. (1993a). The Dissociation Questionnaire (DIS-Q). Development and characteristics of a new self-report questionnaire. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 1, 21–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Vanderlinden, J., Vandereycken, W, Van Dyck, R., and Vertommen, H. (1993b). Dissociative experiences and trauma in eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 13, 187–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Vanderlinden, J., Van Dyck, R., Vandereycken, W, and Vertommen, H. (1993c). Trauma and psychological (dys)functioning in the general population of the Netherlands. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 44, 786–788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Vanderlinden, J., Vandereycken, W, and Probst, M. (1995). Dissociative symptoms in eating disorders: A follow-up study. European Eating Disorder Review, 3, 174–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. World Health Organization (1992). ICD-10: The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders. Geneva: Author.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johan Vanderlinden
    • 1
  • Onno Van der Hart
    • 2
    • 3
  • Katalin Varga
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Behavior TherapyUniversity Center St. JozefKortenbergBelgium
  2. 2.Department of Clinical and Health PsychologyUtrecht UniversityAmsterdam South/New WestThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Regional Institute for Ambulatory Mental CareAmsterdam South/New WestThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Department of Experimental PsychologyEötvös Lorand UniversityBudapestHungary

Personalised recommendations