The Cytokinesis-Block Micronucleus Technique
The observation that chromosome damage can be caused by exposure to ionizing radiation or carcinogenic chemicals was among the first reliable evidence that physical and chemical agents can cause major alterations to the genetic material of eukaryotic cells (Evans, 1977). Although our understanding of chromosome structure is incomplete, evidence suggests that chromosome abnormalities are a direct consequence and manifestation of damage at the DNA level; for example, chromosome breaks may result from unrepaired double-strand breaks in DNA and chromosome rearrangements may result from misrepair of strand breaks in DNA (Savage, 1993). It is also recognized that chromosome loss and malsegregation of chromosomes (nondisjunction) are an important event in cancer and aging and that they are probably caused by defects in the spindle, centromere or as a consequence of undercondensation of chromosome structure before metaphase (Evans, 1990; Dellarco et al., 1985; Guttenbach and Schmid, 1994).
KeywordsBinucleated Cell Micronucleus Assay Acentric Fragment Main Nucleus Nuclear Division Index
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