Exercise in Aging and Pain Control

  • C. Zvi Fuchs
  • Leonard D. Zaichkowsky
Part of the The Springer Series in Adult Development and Aging book series (SSAD)


The purpose of this chapter is to describe the use of exercise to control pain, in the prevention of disease, maintenance of good health, and the process of rehabilitation in the elderly. For purposes of this paper, elderly will be defined as 65 years and older. The research concerning the physical, psychological, and social diseases and problems in the elderly that are particularly susceptible to pain is reviewed and criticized in the context of the use of exercise as an intervention and therapeutic mode. It is important to note that people seek medical care primarily because they feel ill and are in pain, not for treatment of a specific disease. As a result, a substantial part of most treatments is to try and alleviate the pain symptoms associated with the disease. We will conclude the chapter with recommendations for implementing exercise programs for the elderly in order to promote health and reduce pain that is associate with the aging process.


Bone Mineral Density Chronic Pain Exercise Program Pain Control Aerobic Exercise 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ades, P. A., Waldmann, M. L., McCann, W. J., & Weaver, S. O. (1992). Predictors of cardiac rehabilitation participation in older coronary patients. Archives of Internal Medicine, 152(5), 1033–1035.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Altmaier, E. M., Lehmann, T. R., Russell, D. W, & Weinstein, J. N. (1992). The effectiveness of psychological interventions for the rehabilitation of low back pain: A randomized controlled trial evaluation. Pain, 49(3), 329–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ambepitiya, G., Roberts, M., Ranjadayalan, K., & Tallis, R. (1994). Silent exertional myocardial ischemia in the elderly: A quantitative analysis of anginal perceptual threshold and the influence of autonomic function. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 42(7), 732–737.Google Scholar
  4. American Heart Association. (1989). E. is for exercise. National Center, 7272 Greenville Ave., Dallas, TX 75231-4596. Publication #51-1039 (CP), 6-92, 89, 10, 18B.Google Scholar
  5. Atterbury, C., Sorg, J., & Larson, M. A. (1983). Aerobic dancing in a long-term care facility. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 2(3), 71–73.Google Scholar
  6. Avent, R. (1987). Diagnosis and treatment of depression. Symposium: Fulfilling the promise. Psychophysiology, 20, (Suppl. 1), 13–19.Google Scholar
  7. Beckham, J. C., Keefe, F. J., Caldwell, D. S., & Brown, C. J. (1991). Biofeedback as a means to alter electromyographic activity in a total knee replacement patient. Biofeedback and Self Regulation, 16, (1), 23–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bender, R. (1992). Yoga exercises and gentle movements for the elderly. In S. Harris, R. Harris, & W. S. Harris (Eds.), Physical activity and sports: Practice, program and policy (Vol. 2, pp. 344–371). Albany, NY: Center for the Study of Aging.Google Scholar
  9. Ben-Sira, D. (1986). The perception of effort during physical exercise. In L. D. Zaichkowsky, & C. Z. Fuchs (Eds.), The psychology of motor behavior: Development control, learning and performance (pp. 175–190). Ithaca, NY: Mouvement Publications.Google Scholar
  10. Biegel, L. (1984). Physical fitness and the older person: A guide to exercise for health care professionals. Rockville, MD: Aspen.Google Scholar
  11. Block, J. E. (1992). Osteoporosis prevention: Theory and practice. In S. Harris, R. Harris, & W. S. Harris (Eds.). Physical activity and sports: Practice, program and policy (Vol. 2, pp. 83–89). Albany, NY: Center for the Study of Aging.Google Scholar
  12. Blumenthal, J. A., Williams, R. S., Wallace, A. G., Williams, R. B., & Needles, T. L. (1982). Physiological and psychological variables predict compliance to prescribed exercise therapy in patients recovering from myocardial infraction. Psychosomatic Medicine, 44(6), 519–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bove, A. A. (1983). Exercise in the elderly. In A. A. Bove, & D. T. Lowenthal (Eds.), Exercise medicine: Physiological principles and clinical applications. (pp.173–181). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  14. Bradley, L. A. (1989). Adherence with treatment regiments among adult rheumatoid arthritis patients: Current status and future directions. Arthritis Care and Research, 2(3), S33–S39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown, B. A., McCartney, N., & Sale, D. G. (1990). Positive adaptations to weight lifting training in the elderly. Journal of Applied Physiology, 69(5), 1725–1733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown, J. D. (1991). Staying fit and staying well: Physical fitness as a moderator of life stress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(4), 555–561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Buchner, D. M., Beresford, S. A., Larson, E. B., LaCroix, A. Z., & Wagner, E. H. (1992). Effects of physical activity on health status in older adults, 2: intervention study. Annual Review of Public Health, 13, 469–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Buckwalter, J. A. (1995). Should bone, soft tissue and joint injuries be treated with rest or activity? Journal of Orthopedic Research, 13, 155–156.Google Scholar
  19. Cady, C. D., Bischoff, D. P., O’Connell, E. R., Thomas, P. C., & Allan, J. H. (1979). Strength and fitness and subsequent back injuries in fire fighters. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 21, 269–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Campbell, A. J., Borrie, M. J., & Spears, G. F. (1989). Risk factors for falls in a community-based prospective study of people 70 years and older. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 44(4), M112–M117.Google Scholar
  21. Charette, S. L., McEvoy, L., Pyka, G., Show-Harter, C., Guido, D., Wiswell, R. A., & Marcus, R. (1991). Muscle hypertrophy response to resistance training in older women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 70(5), 1912–1916.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Coleman, E. A., Büchner, D. M., Cress, M. E., Chan, B. K. S., & de Lateur, B. J. (1996). The relationship of joint symptoms with exercise performance in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 44(1), 14–21.Google Scholar
  23. Dalsky, G. P., Stocke, K. S., Ehsani, A. A., Slatopolsky, E., Lee, W. C., & Birge, S. J., Jr., (1988). Weight bearing exercise training and lumbar bone mineral content in post menopausal women. Annals of Internal Medicine, 108(6), 824–828.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Davis, G. C., Cortez, C., & Rubin, B. R. (1990). Pain management in the older adult with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. Arthritis Care and Research, 3(3), 127–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. de-Vries, R. J., Dunselman, P. H., Van-Veldhuisen, D. J., van-den-Heuvel, A. F., sWielenoa, R. P., & Lie, K. I. (1994). Comparison between felodipine and isosorbide mononitrate as adjunct to beta blockage in patients > 65 years of age with angina pectoris. American Journal of Cardiology, 74(12), 1201–1206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dexter, P. A. (1992). Joint exercises in elderly persons with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: Performance patterns, medical support patterns and the relationship between exercising and medical care. Arthritis Care and Research, 5(1) 36–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Dixhoorn, J. V., Duivenvoorden, H. J., Pool, J., & Verhage, F. (1990). Psychic effects of physical training and relaxation therapy after myocardial infarction. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 34(3), 327–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Dougherty, J. (1992). Back pain in an aging population. In S. Harris, R. Harris, and W. S. Harris (Eds.), Physical activity and sports: Practice, program and policy, (Vol. 2, pp. 311–316). Albany, NY: Center for the Study of Aging.Google Scholar
  29. Ebrahim, S., & Williams, J. (1992). Assessing the effects of a health promotion program for elderly people. Journal of Public Health Medicine, 14(2), 199–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Emery, C. F., Pinder, S. L., & Blumenthal, J. A. (1989). Psychological effects of exercise among elderly cardiac patients. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, 9(1), 46–53.Google Scholar
  31. Ettinger, W. H., Jr., & Afable, R. F. (1994). Physical disability from knee osteoarthritis: The role of exercise as an intervention. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26(12), 1435–1440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Fiatarone, M. A., Marks, E. C., Ryan, N. D., Meredith, C. N., Lipsitz, L. A., & Evans, W. J. (1990). High-intensity strength training in nonagenarians: Effects on skeletal muscle. Journal of the American Medical Association, 263, 13 (22), 3029–3034.Google Scholar
  33. Fisher, N. M., Gresham, G., & Pendergast, D. R. (1993). Effects of quantitative progressive rehabilitation program applied unilaterally to the osteoarthritic knee. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 74(12), 1319–1326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Flatten, K., Wilhite, B., & Reyes-Watson, E. (1988). Exercise activities for the elderly. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  35. Flynn, J. A., & Wigley, F. M. (1995). Musculoskeletal and rheumatic diseases common in the elderly. In W. Reichel, J. J. Gallo, J. Busby-Whitehead, J. R. Delfs, & J. B. Murphy (Eds.), Care of the elderly: Clinical aspects of aging (4th ed., pp. 308–325). Baltimore: Williams, & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  36. Fox, E. L. (1979). Sports physiology. Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
  37. Fridlund, B., Hogstedt, B., Lidell, E., & Larson, Par-A. (1991). Recovery after myocardial infraction: Effects of a caring rehabilitation program. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 5(1), 23–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Fries, J. F., Singh, G., Morfeld, D., O’Driscoll, P., & Hubert, H. (1966). Relationship of running to musculoskeletal pain with age. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 39(1), 64–72.Google Scholar
  39. Frontera, W. R., Meredith, C. N., O’Reilly, K. P., Knutgen, H. G., & Evans, W. J. (1988). Strength conditioning in men: Skeletal muscle hypertrophy and improved function. Journal of Applied Physiology, 64(3), 1038–1044.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gleser, J., & Mendelberg, H. (1990). Exercise and sport in mental health: A review of the literature. Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 27(2), 92–112.Google Scholar
  41. Goodkin, K., & Gullion, C. M. (1989). Antidepressants for the relief of chronic pain: Do they work? Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 11(3), 83–101.Google Scholar
  42. Greendale, G. A., Hirsch, S. H., & Hahn, T. J. (1993). The effect of weighted vest on perceived health status and bone density in older persons. Quality of Life Research: An International Journal of Quality of Life Aspects of Treatment, Care and Rehabilitation, 2(2), 141–152.Google Scholar
  43. Harris, S., Harris, R., & Harris, W. S. (Eds.) (1992). Physical activity and sports: Practice, program and policy (Vol. 2). Albany, NY: Center for the Study of Aging.Google Scholar
  44. Helme, R. D., & Katz, B. (1993). Management of chronic pain. Medical Journal of Australia, 158(7), 478–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Herning, M. M. (1993). Posture improvement in the frail elderly. In H. M. Perry, III, J. E. Morley, & R. M. Coe (Eds.), Aging and musculoskeletal disorders: Concepts, diagnosis and treatment (pp. 334–353). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  46. Holmes, D. S. (1993). Aerobic fitness and the response to psychological stress. In P. Seraganian (Ed.), Exercise psychology: The influence of physical exercise on psychological processes (pp. 39–62). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  47. Horowitz, M., Need, A. G., Morris, H. A., & Nordin, C. (1993). Osteoporosis in post menopausal women. In H. M. Perry, III, J. E. Morley, & R. M. Coe (Eds.), Aging and musculoskeletal disorders: Concepts, diagnosis and treatment (pp 78–98). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  48. Jacobson, P. C., Beaver, W., Grubb, S. A., Taft, T. N., & Talmage, R. V. (1984). Bone density in women: College athletes and older athletic women. Journal of Orthopedic Research, 2(4), 328–332.Google Scholar
  49. Janal, M. N., Colt, E. W. D., Clark, W. C., & Glusman, M. (1984). Pain sensitivity, mood and plasma endocrine levels in man following long distance running: Effects of naloxone. Pain, 19, 13–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kavanagh, T., Shephard, R. J., Chisholm, A. W., Qureshi, S., & Kennedy, J. (1977). Depression following myocardial infarction: The effects of distance running. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 301, 1029–1038.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kerlan, R. K. (Ed.). (1991). Clinics in sports medicine, 10 (2). Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
  52. Kilbom, A., Gamberale, F., Persson, J., & Annwell, G. (1983). Physiological and psychological indices of fatigue during static contractions. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 50, 179–193.Google Scholar
  53. Kohrt, W. M., Malley, M. T., Coggan, A. R., Spina, R. J., Ogawa, T., Ehsani, A. A., Bourey, R. E., Martin, W. H., III, & Holloszy, J. O. (1991). Effects of gender, age and fitness level on response of V̇o2 max to training in 60–71 year olds. Journal of Applied Physiology, 71(5), 2004–2011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kohrt, W. M., & Snead, D. B. (1993). Effect of exercise on bone mass in the elderly. In H. M. Perry III, J. E. Morley, & R. M. Coe (Eds.). Aging and musculoskeletal disorders: Concepts, diagnosis and treatment (pp. 214–227). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  55. Krolner, B., Toft, B., Nielsen, S. P., & Tondevold, E. (1983). Physical exercise as prophylaxis against involutional vertebrae bone loss: A controlled trial. Clinical Science, 64, 541–546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Lee, I. M., Hsieh, C. C., & Paffenbarger R.S., Jr., (1995). Exercise intensity and longevity in man: The Harvard alumni health study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273(15), 1179–1184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Lehr, J., & Swanson, K. (1990). Fit, firm & 50. Chelsea, MI: Lewis.Google Scholar
  58. Lewin, B., Robertson, I. H., Cay, E. L., Irving, J. B., & Campbell, M. (1992). Effects of self-help post myocardial infarction rehabilitation on psychological adjustment and use of health services. The Lancet, 339, (8800), 1036–1040.Google Scholar
  59. Lewis, C. (1984). Arthritis and exercise. In L. Biegel (Ed.), Physical fitness and the older person: A guide to exercise for health care professionals (pp. 129–149). Rockville, MD: Aspen.Google Scholar
  60. Light, K. C., Herbst, M. C., Bragdon, E. E., Hinderliter, A. L., & Alan, L. (1991). Depression and type A behavior pattern in patients with coronary artery disease: Relationships to painful versus silent myocardial ischemia and b-endorphin responses during exercise. Psychosomatic Medicine, 53(6), 669–683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Limburg, P. J., Sinaki, M., Rogers, J. W., Caskey, P. E., & Pierskalla, B. K. (1991). A useful technique for measure of back strength in osteoporotic and elderly patients. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 66(1), 39–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Linchitz, R. M. (1987). Life without pain. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  63. Lindroth, Y., Bauman, A., Barnes, C., & McCredie, M. (1989). A controlled evaluation on arthritis education. Advances, 6(3), 17–19.Google Scholar
  64. Lohman, T. G. (1995). Exercise training and bone mineral density. Quest, 47, 354–361.Google Scholar
  65. Lyles, K. W., Gold, D. T., Shipp, K. M., Pieper, C. F., Martinez, S., & Mulhausen, P. L. (1993). Association of osteoporotic vertebrae compression fractures with impaired functional status. American Journal of Medicine, 94(6), 595–601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Manniche, C., Lundberg, E., Christensen, I., & Bentzen, L. (1991). Intensive dynamic back exercises for chronic low back pain: A clinical trial. Pain, 47(1), 53–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Marchini, L. M., Perretti, P. G., Passeri, M., & Cucinotta, D. (1992). Effects of physical exercise in the elderly: Cycling and calisthenics for over 65 years of age. In S. Harris, R. Harris, & W.S. Harris. Physical activity and sports: Practice, program and policy (Vol. 2, pp. 322–327). Albany, NY: Center for the Study of Aging.Google Scholar
  68. Mayou, A. (1993). A controlled trial of early rehabilitation after myocardial infarction. Journal of Cardiac Rehabilitation, 3(6), 397–402.Google Scholar
  69. McCully, K. K., Halber, C., & Posner, J. D. (1994). Exercise induced changes in oxygen saturation in the calf muscles of elderly subjects with peripheral vascular disease. Journal of Gerontology, 49(3), B128–B134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. McMurdo, M. E., & Burnett, L. (1992). Randomized controlled trial of exercise in the elderly. Gerontology, 38(5), 292–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Meyer, C. L., & Hawley, D. J. (1994). Characteristics of participants in water exercise programs compared to patients seen in a rheumatic disease clinic. Arthritis Care and Research, 7(2), 85–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Miller, C., & LeLieuver, R. B. (1982). A method to reduce chronic pain in elderly nursing home residents. Gerontologist, 22(3), 314–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Minor, M. A., & Brown, J. D. (1993). Exercise maintenance of persons with arthritis after participation in a class experience. Special issue: Arthritis health education. Health Education Quarterly, 20(1), 83–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Minor, M. A., & Stanford, M. K. (1993). Physical interventions in the management of pain in arthritis: An overview for research and practice. Special issue: The challenges of pain in arthritis. Arthritis Care and Research, 6(4), 197–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Molloy, D. W., Beerschoten, D. A., Borrie, M. J., Crilly, R. J., & Cope, R. D. T. (1988). Acute effects of exercise on neuropsychological function in elderly subjects. American Geriatrics Society, 36, 29–33.Google Scholar
  76. Olausson, B., Eriksson, E., Ellmarker, L., Bydenhag, B., Shyu, C., & Andersson, S.A. (1986). Effects of naloxone on dental pain threshold following muscle exercise and low frequency transcutaneous nerve stimulation: A comparative study in man. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 126, 299–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Ornish, D., Brown, S. E., Scherwitz, L. W., Billings, J. H., Armstrong, T. W., Ports, T. A., McLanahan, S. M., Kirkeeide, R. L., Brand, R. J., Brand, K., & Gould, K. L. (1990). Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lancet, 336, 129–133.Google Scholar
  78. Orth-Gomer, K., Unden, A. L., & Edwards, M. E. (1988). Social isolation and mortality in ischemic heart disease: A 10-year follow up study of 150 middle-aged men. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 224, 205–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Parmelee, P. A. Katz, I. R., & Lawton, P. (1991). The relationship of pain to depression among institutionalized aged. Journal of Gerontology, 46(1), 15–21.Google Scholar
  80. Pate, R., Pratt, M., Blair, S. N., Haskell, W. L., Macera, C. A., Bouchard, C., Buchner, D., Ettinger, W., Heath, G. W., King, A. C., Kriska, A., Leon, A. S., Marcus, B. H., Morris, J., Paffenbarger, R. S., Jr., Patrick, K., Pollock, M. L., Rippe, J. M., Sallis, J., & Wilmore, J. H. (1995). Physical activity and public health: A recommendation from the centers for disease control and prevention and the American college of sports medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273(5), 402–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Perlman, S. G., Connell, K. J., Clark A., & Robinson, M. S. (1990). Dance based aerobic exercise for rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care and Research, 3(1), 29–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Perry, H. M., III, Morley, J. E., & Coe, R. M. (Eds.). (1993). Aging and musculoskeletal disorders: Concepts. diagnosis and treatment. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  83. Province, M. A., Hadley, E. C., Hornbrook, M. C., Lipsitz, L. A., Miller, J. P., Mulrow, C. D., Ory, M. G., Sattin, R. W., Tinetti, M. E., Wolf, S. L., for the FICSIT Group. (1995). The effects of exercise on falls in elderly patients: A preplanned meta-analysis of the FICSIT trials. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273(17), 1341–1347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Risch, S. V., Norrell, N. K., Pollock, M. L. Risch, E. D., Langer, H., Fulton, M., Graves, J. E., & Leggett, S. H. (1993). Lumbar strengthening in chronic low back pain patients: Physiologic and psychological benefits. Spine, 18(2), 232–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Rogers, M. A., & Evans, W. J. (1993). Changes in skeletal muscles with aging: Effects of exercise training. In J. O. Holloszy (Ed.), Exercise and sport sciences reviews, 21, 65–102. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Sardana, R., & Mikhail, B. (1992). Nutritional management of osteoporosis. Geriatric Nursing and Home Care, 13(6), 315–319.Google Scholar
  87. Saxon, S. V. (1991). Pain management techniques for older adults. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  88. Saxon, S. V., & Etten, M. J., (1978). Physical change and aging: A Guide for the Helping Professions. New York: Tiresias Press.Google Scholar
  89. Saxon, S. V., & Etten, M. J., (1984). Psychosocial rehabilitation programs for older adults. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  90. Schilke, J. M., Johnson, G. O., Hough, T. J., & O’Dell, J. R. (1996). Effects of muscle-strength training on the functional status of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee joint. Nursing Research, 45(2), 68–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Schultz, S. K., & Gavron, S. J. (1992). Physical fitness attitudes of Northwest Ohioans 65 years of age and older in nursing homes. In S. Harris, R. Harris, & W. S. Harris (Eds.), Physical activity and sports: Practice. program and policy (Vol. 2, pp. 174–183). Albany, NY: Center for the Study of Aging.Google Scholar
  92. Shephard, R. J. (1987). Physical activity and aging (2nd ed.). Rockville, MD: Aspen.Google Scholar
  93. Shephard, R. J. (1993). Benefits of exercise for the elderly. In H. M. Perry III, J. E. Morley, & R. M. Coe (Eds.), Aging and musculoskeletal disorders: Concepts, diagnosis and treatment, (pp. 228–242). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  94. Smith, T. W., Christensen, A. J., Peck, J. R., & Ward, J. R. (1994). Cognitive distortion, helplessness and depressed mood in rheumatoid arthritis: A four-year longitudinal analysis. Health Psychology, 13(3), 213–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Steege, J. F., & Blumenthal, J. A. (1993). The effects of aerobic exercise on premenstrual symptoms in middle age women: A preliminary study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 37(2), 127–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Stenstrom, C. H., & Christina, H. (1994). Therapeutic exercise in rheumatoid arthritis. Special Issue: Exercise and Arthritis. Arthritis Care and Research, 7(4), 190–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Stern, M. J., Gorman, P. A., & Kaslow, L. (1983). The group counselling v. exercise therapy study: A controlled intervention with subjects following myocardial infarction: Archives of Internal Medicine, 143 1719–1725.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Sullivan, M. J. L., Reesor, K., Mikail, S., & Fisher, R. (1992). The treatment of depression in chronic low back pain: Review and recommendations. Pain, 50, 5–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Sykes, J. C. (1992). Practical nutrition for older people. In S. Harris, R. Harris, & W. S. Harris (Eds.), Physical activity and sports: Practice, program and policy (Vol. 2, pp. 284–285). Albany, NY: Center for the Study of Aging.Google Scholar
  100. Thompson, R. F., Crist, D. M., & Atterbom, H. A. (1990). Treadmill exercise electrocardiography in the elderly with physical impairments. Gerontology, 36(2), 112–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Thoren, P., Floras, J. S., Hoffmann, P., & Seals, D. R. (1990). Endorphins and exercise: Physiological mechanisms and clinical applications. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 22(4), 417–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Turner, J. A., Clancy, S., McQuade, K. J., & Cardenas, D. D. (1990). Effectiveness of behavioral therapy for chronic low back pain: A component analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58(5), 573–579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Unden, A.L., Orth-Gomer, K., & Elofsson, S. (1991). Cardiovascular effects of social support in the work place: Twenty-four hour ECG monitoring of men and women. Psychosomatic Medicine, 53, 50–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Vertinsky, P. (1990). The eternally wounded woman. Nachester, UK: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Wells, K. B., Stewart, A., Hays, R. D., Wells, K. B., Stewart, A., Hays, R. D., Burnam, M. A., Rogers, W., Daniels, M., Berry, S., Greenfield, S., & Ware, J. (1989). The functioning and wellbeing of depressed patients: Results from the medical outcome study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 262, 914–918.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Willis, J. D., & Campbell, L. F. (1992). Exercise psychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  107. Yarasheski, K. E. (1993). Effect of exercise on muscle mass in the elderly. In H. M. Perry III, J. E. Morley, & R. M. Coe, (Eds.), Aging and musculoskeletal disorders: Concepts, diagnosis and treatment (pp. 199–213). New York: Springer.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Zvi Fuchs
    • 1
  • Leonard D. Zaichkowsky
    • 2
  1. 1.Behavioral Medicine Program, Cambridge Hospital, Department of PsychiatrySchool of Medicine, Harvard UniversityCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Department of Developmental Studies and CounselingSchool of Education, Boston UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations