The Psychology of Pain and Suffering

  • Jacob Lomranz
  • David I. Mostofsky
Part of the The Springer Series in Adult Development and Aging book series (SSAD)

Abstract

Because pain is at once a universal experience, a response, a stimulus, and a state, it is little wonder that its very existence has been challenged as an unverifiable construct except for the verbal report that validates its presence (Schoenfeld, 1981). Thus, it is claimed, it is perfectly logical to assert that pain does not exist in infrahumans, and that it is at best understood as a private experience rather than as a physical, psychological, or social state. This problem is hardly new, yet the disruptive consequences of pain to the quality of life and often to the very continuance of biological life itself have raised serious concerns for humans and animals since the birth of humankind. While in the main the emphasis has justifiably focused on management and control, the delineation and understanding of the nature of pain as a scientific and phenomenological entity have taken many turns throughout the various stages of inquiry. The more recent discoveries of opiate-binding sites in the brain in 1973, of endorphins in 1975, and the emergence of specialty pain clinics, have contributed to a resurgence of interest by the scientific and medical communities and has inspired much basic research in pain processes, neurobiological substrates, and the development of advanced treatment protocols for the control of pain. Many of these issues are considered in the chapters that follow. Though not popularly identified with biobehavioral and neuroscientific systems, the disciplines that comprise the dynamic and psychoanalytic aspects of human behavior have much to offer pain research in both theoretical development and treatment formulation that too often goes unnoticed. It is with this in mind that we have undertaken to summarize in the current chapter.

Keywords

Chronic Pain Pain Behavior Psychosomatic Medicine Myofascial Pain Psychodynamic Psychotherapy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, E., & McGuire, F. (1986). Is laughter the best medicine? A study on the effects of humor on perceived pain and affect. Activities, Adaptation, and Aging, 8, 157–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander, F., & French, T. (Eds.). (1948). Studies in psychosomatic medicine, New York: Ronald Press.Google Scholar
  3. Arathuzik, M. (1991). The appraisal of pain and coping in cancer patients. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 13, 714–731.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arntz, A., Van-Eck, M., & Heijmans, M. (1990). Predictions of dental pain: The fear of any expected evil is worse than the evil itself. Behavior Research and Therapy, 28, 29–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bakan, D. (1968). Disease, pain and sacrifice: Towards a psychology of suffering. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  6. Barkwell, D. (1991). Ascribed meaning: A critical factor in coping and pain attenuation in patients with cancer-related pain. Journal of Palliative Care, 7, 5–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Barre, C. (1983). De la neurologie à la psychiatrie de secteur ou du palfium... à la relation. Perspectives Psychiatriques, 21, 206–210.Google Scholar
  8. Bassett, D., & Pilowsky, I. (1985). A study of brief psychotherapy for chronic pain. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 29, 259–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Becker, E. (1973). The denial of death. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  10. Beecher, H. (1956). Relationship of significance of wound to the pain experience. Journal of the American Medical Association, 161, 1609–1613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bond, M., & Pearson, I. (1969). Psychological aspects of pain in women with advanced cancer of the cervix. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 13, 13–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Butler, R., & Lewis, M. (1986). Aging and mental health, Toronto: Merrill.Google Scholar
  13. Carasso, R. L., Arnon G., Yehuda S., & Mostofsky, D. I. (1988). Hypnotic techniques for the management of pain. Journal of the Royal Society of Health, 108, 176–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cassell, E. J. (1982). The nature of suffering and the goals of medicine. New England Journal of Medicine, 306, 639–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Coen, S., & Sarno, J. (1989). Psychosomatic avoidance of conflict in back pain. Journal of the Academy of Psychoanalysis, 17, 359–376.Google Scholar
  16. Cohen-Mansfield, J., & Marx, M. (1993). Pain and depression in the nursing home. Journal of Gerontology, 48, 96–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Conran, M. (1985). The patient in the hospital. Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, 1, 31–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dar, R., Beach, C., Barden, P., & Cleeland, C. (1992). Cancer pain in the marital system: A study of patients and their spouses. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 7, 87–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Demjen, S., Bakal, D., & Dunn, B. (1990). Cognitive correlates of headache intensity and duration. Headache, 30, 423–427.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dickinson, E. (1960). The complete poems of Emily Dickinson (R. Chapman, Ed.) Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  21. Ersek, M., & Ferrell, B. (1994). Providing relief from cancer pain by assisting in the search for meaning. Journal of Palliative Care, 10, 15–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Frankl, V. (1963). Man’s search for meaning: An introduction to logotherapy. New York: Pocket Books.Google Scholar
  23. Freeman, R. (1993). A psychoanalytic case illustrating a psychogenic factor in Burning Mouth Syndrome. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 10(2), 220–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Freud, S. (1963). The problem of anxiety. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  25. Gibson, H. (Ed.). (1994). Psychology, pain, and anaesthesia. London: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
  26. Greenberg, J., & Mitchell, S. (1983). Object relations in psychoanalytic theory. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Harkins, S. (1988). Issues in the study of pain and suffering in relation to age. International Journal of Technology and Aging, 1, 146–155.Google Scholar
  28. Hasenbush, L. (1977). Successful brief therapy of a retired elderly man with intractable pain. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 10, 71–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Hess, N. (1995). Cancer as a defense against depressive pain. Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, 9, 175–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hobfoll, S. (1988). The ecology of stress. New York: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  31. Hunter, K., Linn, M., & Harris, R. (1982). Characteristics of high and low self-esteem in the elderly. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 14, 117–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Keefe, F., Wilkins, R., & Cook, W. (1986). Depression, pain, and pain behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 667–669.Google Scholar
  33. Khantzian, E. (1995). Self regulation vulnerabilities in substance abusers: Treatment implications. In S. Dowling (Ed)., The psychology and treatment of addictive behavior (pp. 17-41). Workshop Series of the American Psychoanalytic Association. Monograph 8. Madison: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  34. Kleinman, A. (1988). The illness narratives: Suffering, healing, and the human condition. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  35. Klusman, L. (1975). Reduction of pain in childbirth by the alleviation of anxiety during pregnancy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 162–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Knight, B. (1993). Psychotherapy as applied gerontology. Generations, 17, 61–64.Google Scholar
  37. Kohut, H. (1977). The restoration of the self. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  38. Krystal, H. (1981). The hedonic element in affectivity. The Annual of Psychoanalysis, 9, 93–115.Google Scholar
  39. Krystal, H. (1987). The impact of massive psychic trauma: Later life sequelae. In J. Sadavoy & M. Leszcz (Eds.), Treating the elderly with psychotherapy, (pp. 95–156). Madison: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  40. Kübler-Ross, E. (1969). On death and dying. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  41. Lance, W., Vachon, M., Ghadirian, P., & Adir, W. (1994). The impact of pain and impaired role performance on distress in persons with cancer. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 617–622.Google Scholar
  42. Lewis, A. (1967). The state of psychiatry: Essays and Addresses, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  43. Lifton, R. (1979). The broken connection. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  44. McCaffrey, M. (1983). Nursing the patient in pain. London: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  45. McDougall, J. (1991). Theatres of the body: A psychoanalytic approach to psychosomatic illness. London: Free Association Books.Google Scholar
  46. Melzack, R., & Dennis, S. (1983). Neurophysiological foundations of pain. In R. Sternbach (Ed.), The psychology of pain (pp. 1–26). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  47. Melzack, R., & Wall, P. (1982). The challenge of pain, New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  48. Mikail, S., Henderson, P., & Tasca, G. (1994). An interpersonally based model of chronic pain: An application of attachment theory. Clinical Psychology Review, 14, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mobily, P., Herr, K., Clark, M., & Wallace, R. (1994). An epidemiologic analysis of pain in the elderly: The Iowa 65+ rural health study. Journal of Aging and Health, 6, 139–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Morris, D. (1993). The culture of pain. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  51. Moss, M., Lawton, P., & Glicksman, A. (1991). The role of pain in the last year of life of older persons. Journal of Gerontology, 46, 51–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nemiah, J. (1962). The effect of leukotomy on pain. Psychosomatic Medicine, 24, 75–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Nemiroff, R., & Colarusso, C. (1990). New dimensions in adult development. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  54. Nowlin, J., & Busse, E. (1977). Psychosomatic problems in the older person. In E. Witkower & H. Warnes (Eds.), Psychosomatic medicine. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  55. Oberle, K., Pau, P., Wry, J., & Grace, M. (1990). Pain, anxiety, and analgesics: A comparative study of elderly and younger surgical patients. Canadian Journal on Aging. 9, 13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. O’Connor, M., & Goddard, A. (1994). The management of intractable low back pain. In H. Gibson (Ed.), Psychology, pain, and anaesthesia (pp. 204–228). London: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
  57. Olson, R., & Malow, R. (1987). Effects of biofeedback and psychotherapy on patients with myofascial pain dysfunction who are nonresponsive to conventional treatments. Rehabilitation Psychology, 32, 195–204.Google Scholar
  58. Parmelee, P., Katz, I., & Lawton, P. (1991). The relation of pain to depression among institutionalized aged. Journals of Gerontology, 46, 15–21.Google Scholar
  59. Rose, M., Atkinson, L., & Slade, P. (1992). An application of the fear avoidance model to three chronic pain problems. Behavior, Research and Therapy, 30, 359–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sadavoy, J., & Leszcz, M. (Eds.). (1987). Treating the elderly with psychotherapy Madison: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  61. Schilder, P. (1951). Studies concerning the psychology and symptomatology of general paresis. In D. Rapaport (Ed.), Organization and pathology of thought (pp. 519–580). New York: Columbia University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schoenfeld, W. N. (1981). Pain: a verbal response. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 5, 385–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sengstaken, E., & King, S. (1993). The problems of pain and its detection among geriatric nursing home residents. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 41, 541–544.Google Scholar
  64. Sifneos, P. (1974). A reconsideration of psychodynamic mechanisms in psychosomatic symptom formation in view of recent clinical observations. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 22, 151–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sternbach, R. (1968). Pain: A psychophysiological analysis. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  66. Strupp, H. (1978). Suffering and psychotherapy. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 14, 73–79.Google Scholar
  67. Turk, D., Meichenbaum, D., & Genest, M. (1983). Pain and behavioral medicine: A cognitive behavioral perspective. London: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  68. Valdes, M., Treserra, J., Garcia, L., & de Pablo, J. (1988). Psychogenic pain and psychological variables: A psychometric study. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 50(1), 15–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Vingoe, F. (1981). Clinical psychology and medicine: An interdisciplinary approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Wade, J., Price, D., & Hammer, R. (1990). An emotional component analysis of chronic pain. Pain, 40, 303–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Weinstein, E. (1968). Symbolic neurology and psychoanalysis. In J. Marmor (Ed.), Modern psychoanalysis (pp. 225–250). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  72. Yalom, I. (1980). Existential psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  73. Zuckerman, M. (1976). Sensation seeking and anxiety traits and states as determinants of behavior in novel situations. In I. Sarason & C. Spielberger (Eds.), Stress and anxiety. (pp. 141–170). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacob Lomranz
    • 1
  • David I. Mostofsky
    • 2
  1. 1.The Herczeg Institute on AgingTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyBoston UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations