Mapping of Genes Controlling Cold Hardiness on Wheat 5A and its Homologous Chromosomes of Cereals

  • Gabor Galiba
  • Ildiko Kerepesi
  • John W. Snape
  • Jozsef Sutka


The analysis of monosomic and substitution lines showed that at least ten of the 21 pairs of chromosomes are involved in the control of frost tolerance and winter hardiness in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Of particular importance for adaptation to autumn sowing are the genes for vernalization requirement (Vrn). Major genes influencing frost resistance (Fr1) and vernalization requirement (Vrn1) were localized on the long arm of chromosome 5 A. To map the location of these genes, single chromosome recombinant lines were developed from the cross between substitution lines: Chinese Spring(Cheyenne 5A) (CS(Ch5A)) and CS(Triticum spelta 5A). The RFLP data show that although a close genetic linkage exist between the loci Fr1 and Vrn1, they are, nevertheless, separable. The location of Vrn1 suggests that it is homologous to other spring habit genes in related species, particularly to the Sh2 locus on choromosome 7(5H) of barley and to the Sp1 locus on chromosome 5R of rye. The level of abscisic acid (ABA) in plants increases as a result of water deprivation or low temperatures. Our study on CS(Ch) substitution lines showed that chromosome 5A of the frost resistant Ch increased the ABA content in the frost sensitive CS background following cold treatment. The crown ABA accumulation in several of the 5A recombinant lines subjected to polyethylene glycol induced water stress and revealed a close genetic linkage between both Fr1 and Vrn1 genes and the gene regulating ABA production. Studies on different substitution lines also showed that the 5A chromosome is involved in osmotic stress induced amino acid and polyamine and, moreover, in cold stress induced proline accumulation. A gene regulating cold induced sugar accumulation has also been localized on chromosome 5A. Accordingly, gene(s) involved in os-moregulation could also be localized on the chromosome 5A.


Substitution Line Frost Resistance Cold Hardiness Frost Tolerance Vernalization Requirement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Chen THH, Gusta LV (1983) Abscisic acid-induced freezing resistance in cultured plant cells. Plant Physiol 73: 71–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen THH, Gusta LV, Chen THH, Fowler DB (1983) Freezing injury and root development in winter cereals. Plant Physiol 73: 773–777.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dallaire S, Houde M, Gagné Y, Saini HS, Boileau S, Chevrier N, Sarhan F (1994) ABA and low temperature induced freezing tolerance via distinct regulatory pathways in wheat. Plant Cell Physiol 35(1): 1–9.Google Scholar
  4. Devos KM, Gale MD (1993) The genetic maps of wheat and their potential in plant breeding. Outlook on Agriculture 22:93–99.Google Scholar
  5. De Vries JN, Sybenga J (1984) Chromosomal location of 17 monogenically inherited morphological markers in rye (Secale cereale L.) using the translocation tester set. Z Planzenzüchtg 92: 117–139.Google Scholar
  6. Dörffling K, Schulenberg S, Lesselich G, Dörffling H (1990) Abscisic acid and proline levels in cold hardened winter wheat leaves in relation to variety-specific differences in freezing resistance. J Agronomy and Crop Science 165: 230–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Flores HE, Galston AW (1984) Osmotic stress-induced polyamine accumulation in cereal leaves I. Physiological parameters of the response. Plant Physiol 75: 102–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fowler DB, Limin AE, Gusta LV (1983) Breeding for winter hardiness in wheat. In DB Fowler LV Gusta, AE Sinklard, BA Hobin, eds, In New Frontiers of Winter Wheat Production. University of Saskatchewan Printing Services, pp 136-184.Google Scholar
  9. Galiba G (1994) In vitro adaptation for drought and cold hardiness in wheat. In: Janick, J. ed, Plant Breeding Reviews, John Wiley and Sons. Inc. Vol. 12 pp 115-162.Google Scholar
  10. Galiba G., Kocsy G, Kaur-Sawhney R, Sutka J, Galston AW (1993a) Chromosomal localization of osmotic and salt stress-induced differential alterations in polyamine content in wheat. Plant Sci 92: 203–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Galiba G, Quarrie SA, Sutka J, Morgounov A, Snape JW (1995) RFLP mapping of the vernalization (Vrrt1) and frost resistance (Fr1) genes on chromosome 5A of wheat. Theor Appl Genet 90: 1174–1179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Galiba G, Simon-Sarkadi L, Kocsy G, Salgo A, Sutka J (1992) Possible chromosomal location of genes determining the osmoregulation of wheat. Theor Appl Genet 85: 415–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Galiba G, Simon-Sarkadi L, Salgo A, Kocsy G (1989) Genotype-dependent adaptation of wheat varieties to water stress in vitro. J Plant Physiol 134: 730–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Galiba G, Sutka J (1988) A genetic study of frost resistance in wheat callus culture. Plant Breeding 101: 132–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Galiba G, Sutka J, Snape JW, Tuberosa R, Quarrie SA, Sarkadi L, Veisz O (1994) The association of frost resistance gene Fr1 with stress-induced osmolyte and abscisic acid accumulation in wheat. In K Dörffling, B Brettschneider, H Tantau, K Pithan eds, Crop Adaptation to Cool Climates, COST 814 Workshop, October 12-14, 1994 Hamburg, Germany, European Commission, pp 389–401.Google Scholar
  16. Galiba G, Tuberosa R, Kocsy G, Sutka J (1993b) Involvement of chromosome 5A and 5D in cold-induced abscisic acid accumulation in and frost tolerance of wheat calli. Plant Breed 110: 237–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Galston AW (1989) In U Bachram, YM Heimer eds, Polyamines and Plant Response to stress, Vol. II. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London, pp 99–106.Google Scholar
  18. Hayes PM, Blaket T, Chen THH, Tragoonrung S, Chen S, Pan A, Liu B (1993) Quantitative trait loci on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) chromosome 7 associated with components of winterhardiness. Genome 36: 66–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Heun M, Kennedy AE, Anderson JA., Lapitan NLV, Sorrells ME, Tanksley SD (1991) Construction of a restriction fragment lenght polymorphism map for barley (Hordeum vulgare). Genome 34: 437–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Housley TL, Pollock CJ (1993) The metabolism of fructan in higher plants. In M Suzuki and NJ Chatterton eds, Science and Technology of Fructans. CRC Press Boca Raton pp 191–225.Google Scholar
  21. Housley TL, Seibert AC, Galiba G, Sutka J (1993) Sugar metabolism in cold acclimated tissues of wheat chromosome 5 substitution lines. In American Society of Agronomy eds, Agronomy Abstract. Nov. 7-12, 1993. Cincinnati, Ohio, pp 74-77.Google Scholar
  22. Kam-Morgan LNW, Gill BS, Muthukrishnan S (1989) DNA resriction fragment polymorphism: a strategy for genetic mapping of D genome of wheat. Genome 32: 724–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kleinhofs A, Kilian A, Saghai Maroof MA, Biyashev RM, Hayes P, Chen FQ, Lapitan N, Fenwick A, Blake TK, Kanazin V, Ananiev E, Dahleen L, Kudrna D, Bollinger D, Knapp SJ, Liu B, Sorrells M, Heun M, Franckowiak JD, Hoffman D, Skadsen R, Steffenson BJ (1993) A molecular, isozyme and morphological map of the barley (Hordeum vulgare) genome. Theor Appl Genet 86: 705–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lalk I, Dörffling K (1985) Hardening, abscisic acid, proline and freezing resistance in two winter wheat varieties. Physiol Plant 63: 894–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lang V, Mäntylä E, Welin B, Sundberg B, Palva ET (1994) Alterations in water status, endogenous abscisic acid content, and expression of rab18 gene during the development of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol 104: 1341–1349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Laurie DA, Pratchett N, Bezant J, Snape JW (1995) RFLP mapping of five major genes and eight quantitative trait loci controlling flowering time in a winter x spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cross. Genome 38: 575–585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Law CN (1966) The locations of genetic factors affecting a quantitative character in wheat. Genetics 53: 487–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Law CN, Worland AJ, Giorgio B (1976) The genetic control of ear-emergence time by chromosome 5A and 5D of wheat. Heredity 36: 49–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Law CN, Snape JW, Worland AJ (1981) Intraspecific chromosome manipulation. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London, B292: 509–518.Google Scholar
  30. Leprince O, Hendry GAF, McKersie BM (1993) The mechanisms of desiccation tolerance in developing seeds. Seed Sci Res 3: 231–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McKersie BD, Leshem YY (1994) Stress and Stress Coping in Cultivated Plants. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Melz G (1989) Beiträge zur genetik des roggens (Secale cereale L.) DSc thesis, Berlin.Google Scholar
  33. Morgan JM (1991) A gene controlling differences in osmoregulation in wheat. Austral J Plant Physiol 18: 249–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Olien CR, Clark JL (1993) changes in soluble carbohydrate composition of barley, wheat, and rye during winter. Crop Sci 85: 21–29.Google Scholar
  35. Öquist G, Hurry VM, Huner NPA (1993) Low temperature effects on photosynthesis and correlation with freezing tolerance in spring and winter cultivars of wheat and rye. Plant Physiol 101: 245–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Pilon-Smits EAH, Ebskamp MJM, Paul MJ, Jeuken MJW, Weisbeek PJ, Smeekens SCM (1995) Improved performance of transgenic fructan-accumulating tobacco under drought stress. Plant Physiol 107: 125–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Plés P (1992) Biochemical study on the stress susceptibility of wheat. MSc.Thesis, Department of Biochemistry and Food Technology, Technical University of Budapest, Hungary.Google Scholar
  38. Plaschke J, Borner A, Xie DX, Koebner RMD, Schlegel R, Gale MD (1993) RFLP mapping of genes affecting plant height and growth habit in rye. Theor Appl Genet 85: 1049–1054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pugsley AT (1971) A genetic analysis of the spring-winter habit in wheat. Aust J Agric Res 22: 21–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Quarrie SA, Galiba G, Sutka J, Snape JW, Semikhodski A, Steed A, Gulli M, Calestani C (1994) Association of major vernalization gene of wheat with stress-induced abscisic acid production. In K Dörffling, B Brettschneider, H Tantau, K Pithan eds, Crop Adaptation to Cool Climates, COST 814 Workshop, October 12-14, 1994 Hamburg, Germany, European Commission, pp 403-414.Google Scholar
  41. Rikin A, Atsmon D, Gitler C (1979) Chilling injury in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): prevention by abscisic acid. Plant Cell Physiol 20: 1537–1546.Google Scholar
  42. Roberts DWA (1986) Chromosomes in ‘Cadet’ and ‘Rescue’ wheats carrying loci for cold hardiness and vernalization response. Can J Genet Cytol 28: 991–997.Google Scholar
  43. Roberts DWA (1993) Studies of winter hardiness and related processes in wheat. Bulletin, Lethbridge Research Station.Google Scholar
  44. Ryu, SB, Li PH (1994) Potato cold hardiness development and abscisic acid. 1. Conjugated abscisic acid is not the source of the increase in free abscisic acid during potato (Solanum commersonii) cold acclimation. Physiol Plant 90: 15–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Snape JW, Law CN, Parker BB, Worland AJ (1985) Genetical analysis of chromosome 5A of wheat and its influence on important agronomic characters. Theor Appl Genet 71: 518–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Snape JW, Law CN, Worland AJ (1976) Chromosome variation for loci controlling ear-emergence time on chromosome 5A of wheat. Heredity 37: 335–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Strogonov BP (1973) Structure and Function of Plant Cells in Saline habitats. Israel program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, London.Google Scholar
  48. Sutka J (1981) Genetic studies of frost resistance in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 59: 45–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sutka J, Snape JW (1989) Location of a gene for frost resistance on chromosome 5A of wheat. Euphytica 42: 41–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tantau, H, Dörffling K (1991) In-vitro selection of hydroxyproline-resistant cell lines of wheat (Triticum aesti-vurn): accumulation of proline, decrease in osmotic potential, and increase in frost tolerance. Physiol Plant 82:243–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Takahashi R, Yasuda S (1970) Genetics of earliness and growth habit in barley. In RA Nilan ed, Barley genetics. II. Proc. 2nd Int. Barley Genet. Symp., Washington 1970. Washington State University Press, pp 388-408.Google Scholar
  52. Taylor JS, Bhalla MK, Robertson JM, Piening LJ (1991) Cytokinins and abscisic acid in hardening winter wheat. Can J Bot 68: 1597–1601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tognetti JA, Salerno GL, Crespi MD, Pontis HG (1990) Sucrose and fructan metabolism of different wheat cul-tivars at chilling temperatures. Physiol Plant 78: 554–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. van Swaaij AC, Jakobsen E, Kiel JAKW, Feenstra WJ (1986) Selection, characterization and regeneration of hydroxyproline-resistant cell lines of Solarium tuberosum: Tolerance to NaCl and freezing stress. Physiol Plantarum 68: 359–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Veisz O, Sutka J (1989) The relationships of hardening period and the expression of frost resistance in chromosome substitution lines of wheat. Euphytica 43: 41–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Winkel A (1989) Breeding for drought tolerance in cereals. Vortrage Pflanzenzucht 16: 357–368.Google Scholar
  57. Wricke G (1991) A molecular marker linkage map of rye for plant breeding. Vortr Pflanzenzüchtg 20: 72–78.Google Scholar
  58. Worland AJ, Gale MD, Law CN (1987) Wheat genetics. In FGH Lupton, ed, Wheat Breeding Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 129–171.Google Scholar
  59. Xie DX, Devos KM, Moore G, Gale MD (1993) RFLP-based genetic maps of the homologous group 5 chromosomes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Theor Appl Genet 87: 70–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabor Galiba
    • 1
  • Ildiko Kerepesi
    • 2
  • John W. Snape
    • 3
  • Jozsef Sutka
    • 1
  1. 1.Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of SciencesMartonvasarHungary
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryJanus Pannonius UniversityPecsHungary
  3. 3.Cereal Research DepartmentJohn Innes CentreColney, NorwichGreat Britain

Personalised recommendations