Physiological Manifestations of Endophyte Toxicosis in Ruminant and Laboratory Species

  • Jack W. Oliver


Fescue alkaloid intake by cattle results in adverse metabolic effects that cause billion dollar losses annually to livestock production in the U.S. alone (Bacon et al., 1977; Garner and Cornell, 1978; Bush et al., 1979; Hoveland et al., 1980; Hemken, et al., 1981; Robbins, 1983; Wallner et al., 1983; Ball, 1984; Jackson et al., 1984ab; Stuedemann et al., 1985; Fribourg et al., 1991, 1995; Hoveland, 1991, 1993; Cross et al., 1995; Porter and Thompson, 1992; Strickland et al., 1993; Paterson et al., 1995), with the fescue toxicosis syndrome described as the major grass-induced toxicosis in the country (Cheeke, 1995). These estimates do not reflect losses attributable to the same alkaloids found in ergotized grains and grasses (Bacon et al., 1986, 1995; Coppock et al., 1989). Grasslands make up an increasing part of the world-wide ecosystem (Clay, 1991, 1993aó, 1994; Siegel and Bush, 1994; Hume, 1993), and endophytic fungi correspondingly infect a larger proportion of the grasslands each year. The presence of the endophyte of tall fescue in several countries gives the fescue toxicosis problem global significance (Siegel et al., 1984; Latch et al., 1984, 1987; Fletcher et al., 1990, 1993). For additional perspectives of important endophyte-infected forage relationships to animals, several reviews can be consulted (Read and Camp, 1986; Bacon, 1993, 1995; Buckner et al., 1979; Stuedemann and Hove-land, 1988; Porter and Thompson, 1992; Strickland et al., 1993; Thompson and Stuedemann 1993; Stuedemann and Thompson, 1993; Schmidt and Osborn, 1993; Prestidge, 1993; Thompson and Garner, 1994; Spiers et al., 1995b; Paterson et al., 1995; Porter, 1994, 1995; Cheeke, 1995; Joost, 1995, Cross et al., 1995).


Tall Fescue Ergot Alkaloid Bovine Endothelial Cell Ergotamine Tartrate Physiological Manifestation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abney, L.K., J.W. Oliver and C.R. Reinemeyer. 1993. Vasoconstrictive effects of tall fescue alkaloids on equine vasculature. J. Equine Vet. Sci. 13: 334–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, H.R. 1996. Physiologic, pathophysiologic, and therapeutic implications for endogenous nitric oxide. JAVMA, 209: 1297–1302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Agee, C.S. and N.S. Hill. 1994 Ergovaline variability in Acremonium-infected tall fescue due to environment and plant genotype. Crop. Sci. 34: 221–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aitken, M.M. and J. Sanford. 1972. Effects of histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and bradykinin on cattle and their modification by antagonists and by vagotomy. J. Comp. Path. 82: 257–266.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Albibi, R. and R.W. McCallum. 1983. Metoclopramide: pharmacology and clinical application. Arch. Intern. Med. 98: 86–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aldrich, C.G., M.T. Rhodes, J.L. Miner, M.S. Kerley and J.A. Paterson. 1993a. The effects of endophyte-infected tall fescue consumption and use of a dopamine antagonist on intake, digestibility, body temperature and blood constituents in sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 71: 158–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Aldrich, C.G., J.A. Patterson, J.L. Tate and M.S. Kerley. I993b. The effects of endophyte-infected tall fescue consumption on diet utilization and thermal regulation in cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 71: 164–170.Google Scholar
  8. Alper, R.H. 1990. Hemodynamic and renin responses to (±)-DOI, a selective 5-HT, receptor agonist, in conscious rats. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 175: 323–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Anggard, E.E., R.M. Botting and J.R. Vane. 1990. Endothelium-derived vasoconstricting factors. p. 7–20. In. J.B. Warren (ed.). The Endothelium. An Introduction to Current Research. Wiley Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Arce, V., L. Lima, N. Lois, A. Rodriguez, M.J. Diaz, J.A.F. Tresguerres and J. Devesa. 1991. Role of central dopaminergic pathways in the neural control of growth hormone secretion in normal man: studies with metoclopramide. Neuroendocrinol. 53: 143–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ashley, G. Fescue poisoning of cattle on Florida muck land. JAVMA, 493–494, June, 1958.Google Scholar
  12. Bacon, C.W., J.K. Porter, J.D. Robbins and E.S. Luttrell. 1977. Epichloe typhina from toxic tall fescue grasses. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 34: 576–581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bacon, C.W., P.C. Lyons, J.K. Porter and J.D. Robbins. 1986. Ergot toxicity from endophyte-infected grasses: A review. Agron. J. 78: 106–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bacon, C.W. 1993. Grass-endophyte research, 1977-present, an ecological miasma clarified through history. p. 3–10. In. D.E. Hume, G.C.M. Latch and H.S. Easton (eds.). Proc. 2nd Internat. Symposium on Acremonium/Grass Interactions. Ag Research, Grasslands Research Centre, Palmerston North, NZ.Google Scholar
  15. Bacon, C.W. 1995. Toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue and range grasses: Historic perspectives. J. Anim. Sci. 73: 861–870.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Badia, A., A. Moron, L. Cuffi and E. Vila. 1988. Effects of ergotamine on cardiovascular catecholamine receptors in the pithed rat. Gen. Pharmacol. 19: 475–481.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Ball, D.M. 1984. An overview of fescue toxicity research. Agric. Practice 5: 31–36.Google Scholar
  18. Barnes, N.M., J.M. Barry, B. Costall, R.J. Naylor and F.D. Tattersall. 1987. Antagonism by parachlorophenylalanine of cisplatin induced emesis. Br. J. Pharmacol. 92: 649.Google Scholar
  19. Barragry, T.B. 1994. Veterinary Drug Therapy. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, PA. p. 737–743.Google Scholar
  20. Beconi, M.G., M.D. Howard, T.D.A. Forbes, R.B. Muntifering, N.W. Bradley and M.J. Ford. 1995. Growth and subsequent feedlot performance of estradiol-implanted vs. nonimplanted steers grazing fall-accumulated endophyte-infested or low-endophyte tall fescue. J. Anim. Sci. 73: 1576–1584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Belesky, D.P., J.D. Robbins, J.A. Stuedemann, S.R. Wilkinson and O.J. Devine. 1987. Fungal endophyte infectionloline derivative alkaloid concentration of grazed tall fescue. Agron. J. 79: 217–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Belesky, D.P., J.A. Stuedemann, R.D. Plattner and S.R. Wilkinson. 1988. Ergopeptine alkaloids in grazed tall fescue. Agron. J. 80: 209–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Benloucif, S., M.J. Keegan and M.P. Galloway. 1993. Serotonin-facilitated dopamine release in vivo: pharmacological characterization. J. Pharmacol. Exper. Therap. 265: 373–377.Google Scholar
  24. Bernard, J.K., A.B. Chestnut, B.H. Erickson and F.M. Kelly. 1993. Effects of prepartum consumption of endophyte-infested tall fescue on serum prolactin and subsequent milk production of Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76: 1928–1933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bertho, E., J. Ratte, J.J. DeDien and J.C. Gagnon. 1960. latrogenic ergotism. Angiology 20: 455–459.Google Scholar
  26. Blandizzi, C., G. Tarkovacs, G. Natale, M.D. Tacca and E.S. Vizi. 1993. Functional Evidence that [3H] acetylcholine and [3H] noradrenaline release from guinea pig ileal myenteric plexus and nonadrenergic terminals is modulated by different presynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptor subtypes. J. Pharm. Exper. Therap. 267: 1054–1060.Google Scholar
  27. Blann, A.D. 1993. Is raised von Willibrand factor a marker of endothelial cell damage? Med. Hypoth. 41:419–424. Bloom, F.E. 1996. Neurotransmission and the central nervous system. p. 267–293 In: J.G. Hardman, L.E. Limbird, P.B. Molinoff, R.W. Ruddon and A.G. Gilman (eds.). Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 9`h Edition. McGraw Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Blundell, J. 1991. Pharmacological approaches to appetite suppression. Trends in Pharmacol. Sci. 12: 147–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bluntschli, H.J. and R.H. Goetz. 1948. The effect of ergot derivatives on the circulation in man with special reference to two new hydrogenated compounds (dihydroergotamine and dihydroergocornine). Am. Heart J. 35: 873–894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Blythe, L.L., J. Tor-Agbidye and A.M. Craig. 1993. Correlation of quantities of lolitrem B toxin to clinical field cases of ryegrass staggers. Proc. Sympos. on Mycotoxicoses of Grassland Farming. N. Zealand Vet. J. 41: 217.Google Scholar
  31. Bohlen, D.M., G.E. Burrows, C.R. Clarke and S.L. Burrows. 1995. Lack of effect of ivermectin on antipyrine and erythromycin disposition in calves. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 18: 476–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Bolt, D.J., J. Bond and T. Elsasser. 1982. Changes in plasma prolactin and grazing behavior in heifers treated with dopamine antagonist while grazing tall fescue and orchard grass pastures. J. Anim. Sci. 115: 48 (abst.).Google Scholar
  33. Bond, J., J.B. Powell, D.J. Undersander, P.W. Moe, H.F. Tyrell and R.R. Oltjen. 1984. Forage composition and growth and physiological characteristics of cattle grazing several varieties of tall fescue during summer conditions. J. Anim. Sci. 59: 584–593.Google Scholar
  34. Bounameaux, H., P.A. Schneider, A. Mossaz, R. Suter and H. Vasey. 1987. Severe vasospastic reactions (ergotism) during prophylactic administration of heparin-dihydroergotamine. VASA, Band 16: 370–372.Google Scholar
  35. Bradley, P.B., G. Engel, W. Feniuk, J.R. Fozard, P.P.A. Humphrey, D.N. Middlemiss, E.J. Mylecharane, B.P. Richardson and P.R. Saxena. 1986. Proposals for the classification and nomenclature of functional receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine. Neuropharmacol. 25: 563–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Brain, S.D., J.R. Tippins and T.J. Williams. 1988. Endothelin induces potent microvascular constriction. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 95: 1005–1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Bransby, D.I., J. Holliman and J.T. Eason. 1993. Ivermectin could partially block fescue toxicosis. Proc. American Forage and Grassland Council, Des Moines, IA. p. 81–85.Google Scholar
  38. Bransby, D.I. 1993. Another tool against fescue toxicosis? Beef 5: 33–34.Google Scholar
  39. Bransby, D.I. 1996. Steer weight gain responses to deworming with ivermectin when grazing endophyte-infected fescue. Proc. 41 Mtg. Amer. Assoc. Vet. Parasitologists. Louisville, KY. p. 60.Google Scholar
  40. Brazle, F.K. and K.P. Coffey. 1991. Effect of zeranol on performance of steers grazing high-and low-endophyte tall fescue pastures. Prof. Animal Scientist 7: 39–42.Google Scholar
  41. Brookbanks, E.O., K.C. Bell, D. Fraser and M.P. Kearns. 1985. Hyperthermia in cattle associated with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). N. Zealand Vet. J. 33: 57–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Bryden, W.L. Ambient temperature and the clinical expression of ergotism and ergot-like syndromes. p. 209–211. In: S.S. Quisenberry and R.E. Joost (Eds.). Proc., Internat. Sympos. Acremonium/Grass Interactions. New Orleans, LA. Nov. 5–7, 1990.Google Scholar
  43. Buckner, R.C., J.B. Powell and R.V. Frakes. 1979. Historical Development. p. 1–8. In: L.P. Bush and R.C. Buckner (Eds). Tall Fescue. American Society of Agronomy Special Publication No. 20. Madison, WI. Burfening, P.J. 1973. Ergotism. JAVMA 163: 1288–1290.Google Scholar
  44. Burrows, C.F. 1984. Gastrointestinal pharmacology. AAHA’s annual meeting. 51: 197–200.Google Scholar
  45. Bush, L., J. Boling and S. Yates. 1979. Animal Disorders. p. 247–292. In: L.P. Bush and R.C. Buckner (Eds). Tall Fescue. American Society of Agronomy Special Publication No. 20. Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  46. Bush, L.P. and M.R. Siegel. 1991. Alkaloid accumulation in endophyte-infected tall fescue. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SRIEG-37, Atlanta, GA. p. 42–44.Google Scholar
  47. Byrne-Quinn, E. 1964. Prolonged arteriospasm after overdose of oral ergotamine tartrate. Brit. Med. J. 2: 552–553.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Campbell, W.B. 1990. Lipid-derived antocoids: eicosanoids and platelet-activating factor. p. 600–618. In: A.G. Goodman, T.W. Rall, A.S. Nies and R. Taylor. (eds). Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 8’h edition. Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Carey, R.M., M.O. Thorner and E.M. Ortt. 1980. Dopaminergic inhibition of metoclopramide-induced aldosterone secretion in man. J. Clin. Invest. 66: 10–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Carr, S.B. and D.R. Jacobson. 1969. Bovine physiological responses to toxic fescue and related conditions for application in a bioassay. J. Dairy Sci. 52: 1792–1999.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Cheeke, P.R. 1988. Toxicity and metabolism of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. J. Anim. Sci. 66: 2343–2350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Cheeke, P.R., B.R. Luick and W. Debessai. 1993. Effects of feeding endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lamb performance and serum prolactin. NZ Vet. J. 41: 214, 1993.Google Scholar
  53. Cheeke, P.R. 1995. Endogenous toxins and mycotoxins in forage grasses and their effects on livestock. J. Anim. Sci. 73: 909–918.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Christensen, M.J. 1993. Changes in cellular interactions in grass-A cremonium endophyte associations with aging of host tissues which may influence production of alkaloids. NZ Vet. J., 41: 213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Cincotta, A.H., A.H. Meier and L.L. Southern. 1989. Bromocriptine alters hormone rhythms and lipid metabolism in swine. Ann. Nutr. Metab. 33: 305–314.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Clare, K.A.S., E.M. Green, J.R. Strickland, J.W. Oliver, F.M. Andrews, D.L. Cross, E.K. Alton and D.K. Roach. 1994. Effect of endophyte-infected tall fescue on equine fetal pulmonary maturity. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SERAIEG-8, Atlanta, GA. p. 59–60.Google Scholar
  57. Clark, B.J., D. Chu and W.H. Aellig. 1978. Actions on the heart and circulation. p. 321–420 In. B. Berde and H.O. Schild (Eds.). Ergot Alkaloids and Related Compounds. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  58. Clay, Keith. 1991. Fungal endophytes, grasses, and herbivores. p. 199–226. In. P. Barbosa, V. A. Krischik and C.G. Jones (Eds.). Microbial Mediation of Plant-Herbivore Interactions. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
  59. Clay, Keith. 1993a. Recent advances in the ecology of endophytes. p. 11–30. In: D.E. Hume, G.C.M. Latch and H.S. Easton (Eds.). Proc. 2nd Internat. Sympos. On Acremonium/Grass Interactions. AgResearch, Grasslands Research Centre, Palmerston North, NZ.Google Scholar
  60. Clay, Keith. 1993b. The ecology and evolution of endophytes. p. 39–64. In: R. Joost and S. Quisenberry (Eds.). Acremonium/Grass Interactions. Elsevier, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  61. Clay, Keith. 1994. The potential role of endophytes in ecosystems. p. 73–86. In: C.W. Bacon and J.F. White, Jr (Eds.). Biotechnology of Endophytic Fungi of Grasses. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  62. Cohen, M.L., M.P. Johnson, K.W. Schenck, A. Susemichel, D.B. Wainscott, D.W. Robertson and D.L. Nelson. 1993. DOI and a-methylserotonim: comparative vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle effects and cen- tral 5-hydroxytryptamine2 receptor affinities. J. Pharmacol. Exper. Therap. 266: 93–949.Google Scholar
  63. Coles, E.H. 1980. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, Third Ed. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  64. Conti, A., A. Monopoli, A. Forlani, E. Ongini, C. Antona and P. Biglioli. 1990. Role of 5-HT2 receptors in serotonin-induced contraction in the human mammary artery. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 176: 207–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Coppock, R.W., M.S. Mostrom, J. Simon, D.J. McKenna, B. Jacobsen andH.L. Szlachta. 1989. Cutaneous ergotism in a herd of dairy calves. JAVMA, 194: 549–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Cornell, C.N., J.V. Lueker, G.B. Garner and J.L. Ellis. 1990. Establishing ergovaline levels for fescue toxicosis, with and without endoparasites, under controlled climatic conditions. p. 75 In: S.S. Quisenberry and R.E. Joost (Ed.). Proc. Int. Symp. On Acremonium/Grass Interactions, 3 Nov. New Orleans, LA. Louisiana AES, Baton Rouge, LA.Google Scholar
  67. Cotran, R.S., V. Kumar, S.L. Robbins and F.J. Schoen. 1994. Inflammation and Repair. p. 53. In: Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease, 5th Ed. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  68. Craig, A.M., E.G. Pearson, C. Meyer and J.A. Schmitz. 1991. Serum liver enzyme and histopathologic changes in calves with chronic and chronic-delayed Seneciojacobaea toxicosis. Am. J. Vet. Res. 52: 1969–1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Craig, A.M., J. Tor-Agbidye and L.L. Blythe. 1993. Correlation of quantities of ergovaline toxin with clinical cases of tall fescue toxicosis. N.Z. Vet. J. 41: 214.Google Scholar
  70. Cranley, J., R. Krause, E. Strasser and C. Hofer. 1963. Impending gangrene of four extremities secondary to ergotism. N. Engl. J. Med. 269: 71–72.Google Scholar
  71. Crawford, R.J., Jr. and G.B. Garner. 1991. Evaluation of corn gluten feed and ivermectin to ameliorate the negative impact of endophyte-infected tall fescue on cattle performance. Proc. Tall Fescue toxicosis Workshop, SRIEG-37, Atlanta, GA. p. 72–74.Google Scholar
  72. Cross, D.L., L.M. Redmond and J.R. Strickland. 1995. Equine fescue toxicosis: Signs and solutions. J. Anim. Sci. 73: 899–908.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Culvenor, C.C.J. 1974. The hazard from toxic fungi in Australia. Aust. Vet. J. 50: 69–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Cunningham, I.J. 1949. A note on the cause of tall fescue lameness in cattle. Aust. Vet. J. p. 27–28, Feb.Google Scholar
  75. Cushing, D.J. and M.L. Cohen. 1993. Serotonin-induced contraction in porcine coronary artery: use of ergolines to support vascular 5-hydroxytryptamine-2-receptor heterogeneity. J. Pharamcol. Exper. Therap. 264: 193–200.Google Scholar
  76. Custer, R.P., S. Wagoner and C. Eisenhower. 1938. The experimental pathology of ergotism. With reference to some newer ergot derivatives. Amer. J. Med. Sci. 452–457.Google Scholar
  77. Daunt, D.A. and M. Maze. 1992. Alpha-2 adrenergic agonist receptors, sites and mechanisms of action. p. 165–180. In C.E. Short and A.V. Poznak (Eds.). Animal Pain. Churchill Livingstone, New York.Google Scholar
  78. Davenport, G.M., J.A. Boling and C.H. Rahe. 1993. Growth and endocrine responses of cattle to implantation of estradiol-17ß during continuous or discontinuous grazing of high-and low-endophyte-infected tall fescue. J. Anim. Sci. 71: 757–764.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Davis, S.L. and M.L. Borger. 1973. Hypothalamic catecholamine effects on plasma levels of prolactin and growth hormone in sheep. Endocrinol. 92: 303–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. DeMey, J. and P.M. Vanhoutte. 1981. Uneven distribution of postjunctional alpha-1 and alpha-2 like adrenoceptors in canine arteriol and venous smooth muscle. Circ. Res. 48: 875–884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Denard, T., E. Piper, A. Moubarak, Z. Johnson, R. Petroski and M. Flieger. 1993. Effects of fescue alkaloids on in vitro prolactin release. Proc., Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SERAIEG-8. Atlanta, GA., Oct. 25–26, p. 6.Google Scholar
  82. Desmecht, D.J.M., A.S. Linden, F.A. Rollin, H. Amory and P.M. Lekeux. 1992. Effect of intravenous and aerosol administration of 5-hydroxytryptamine on pulmonary function values in health calves. Am. J. Vet. Res. 53: 315–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Doherty, T.J., P.J. Pascoe, W.N. McDonnell and G. Moteith. 1986. Cardiopulmonary effects of xylazine and yohimbine in laterally recumbent sheep. Can. J. Vet. Res. 50: 517–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Dougherty, C.T., L.M. Lauriault, N.W. Bradley, N. Gay and P.L. Cornelius. 1991. Induction of tall fescue toxicosis in heat-stressed cattle and its alleviation with thiamine. J. Anim. Sci. 69: 1008–1018.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Doyle, A.E. The relevance of serotonin antagonism in the treatment of hypertension. 1988. Drugs 36: 67–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Drouet, L., B. Baudin, F.C. Baumann and J.P. Caen. 1988. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme: an endothelial cell marker: Application to thromboembolic pathology. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 112: 450–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Dyer, D.C. 1993. Evidence that ergovaline acts on serotonin receptors. Life Sci. 53: 223–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Easton, H.S., G.A. Lane and B.A. Tapper. 1993. Ergovaline in endophyte-infected ryegrass pastures. NZ Vet. J. 41: 214.Google Scholar
  89. Ebersole, B.J., C.A. Diglio, D.W. Kaufman and K.A. berg. 1993. 5-Hydroxytryptamine,-like receptors linked to increases in intracellular calcium concentration and inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells derived from bovine basilar artery. J. Pharm. Exper. Therap. 266: 692–699.Google Scholar
  90. Egashira, S., W. Mitsuoka, H. Tagawa, T. Kuga, H. Tomoike, M. Nakamura and A. Takeshita. 1995. Mechanism of ergonovine-induced hyperconstriction of coronary artery after x-ray irradiation in pigs. Basic Res. Cardiol. 90: 167–175.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Eiler, H., W.A. Lyke and R. Johnson. 1981. Internal vomiting in the ruminant: Effect of apomorphine on ruminal pH in sheep. Am. J. Vet. Res. 42: 202–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Eisenach, J.C. 1988. Intravenous clonidine produces hypoxemia by a peripheral alpha-2 adrenergic mechanism. J. Pharmacol. Exper. Therap. 244: 247–252.Google Scholar
  93. Elsasser, T.H. and D.J. Bolt. 1987. Dopaminergic-like activity in toxic fescue alters prolactin but not growth hormone or thyroid stimulating hormone in ewes. Dom. Anim. Endocrinol. 4: 259–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Fajardo, L.F. 1989. The complexity of endothelial cells: A review. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 92: 241–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Fedotin, M.S. and C. Hartman. 1970. Ergotamine poisoning producing renal arterial spasm. New Engl. J. Med. 283: 518–520.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Feletou, M., O. Dellazuana and J. Duhault. 1994. Serotoninergic receptor subtype in coronary artery smooth muscle from young and atheroscleotic rabbit. J. Pharmacol. Exper. Therapy. 268: 124–132.Google Scholar
  97. Fiorito, I.M., L.D. Bunting, G.M. Davenport and J.A. Boling. 1991. Metabolic and endocrine responses of lambs fed Acremonium coenophialum-infected or non-infected tall fescue hay at equivalent nutrient intake. J. Anim. Sci. 69: 2108–2114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Fletcher, L.R., J.H. Hoglund and B.L. Sutherland. 1990. The impact of Acremonium endophytes in New Zealand, past, present and future. Proc. NZ Grassland Assoc. 52: 227–235.Google Scholar
  99. Fletcher, L.R. 1993. Grazing ryegrass/endophyte associations and their effect on animal health performance. p. 13–18. In D.E. Hume, G.C.M. Latch and H.S. Easton (eds.). Proc. 2id Internat. Sympos. on Acre-monium/Grass Interactions. Ag Research, Grasslands Research Centre, Palmerston North, NZGoogle Scholar
  100. Fox-Threlkeld, J.E.T., E.E. Daniel, F. Christinck, V.J. Hruby, S. Cipris and Z. Woskowska. 1994. Identification of mechanisms and sites of action of mu and delta opioid receptor activation in the canine intestine. J. Pharm. Exper. Therap. 268: 689–700.Google Scholar
  101. Fraser, D.M. and P.R. Dorling. 1983. Suspected ergotism in two heifers. Aust. Vet..J. 60: 303–305.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Freeman, A.J., K.T. Cunningham and M.B. Tyers. 1992. Selectivity of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists and anti-emetic mechanisms of action. Anti-Cancer Drugs 3: 78–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Fribourg, H.A., A.B. Chestnut, B.V. Conger, K.D. Gwinn, J.W. Oliver, J.H. Reynolds and J.C. Waller. 1991. Tall Fescue and the Fungal Endophyte-The Tenn. Research Program. Tennessee Farm and Home Sci. 160: 3–83.Google Scholar
  104. Fribourg, H.A., J.C. Waller, K.D. Gwinn, J.R. Strickland, J.W. Oliver, J.H. Reynolds, B.H. Erickson and F.N. Schrick. 1995. Tall fescue toxicosis research in Tennessee–an update. Tenn. Agri-Science 174: 35–42.Google Scholar
  105. Fuxe, K., B.B. Fredholm, L.F. Agnati, S.O. Ogren, B.J. Everitt, G. Jonsson and J.A. Gustafsson. 1978. Interaction of ergot drugs with central monoamine systems. Evidence for a high potential in the treatment of mental and neurological disorders. Pharmacol. 16 (Suppl. 1): 99–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Gadberry, S., T. Denard, A. Moubarak, Z. Johnson and E. Piper. 1995. Effect of endophyte-infected fescue seed and endophyte-free seed with added ergopeptide on fescue toxicosis symptoms in rats. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SERAIEG-8, Nashville, TN. p. 11–12.Google Scholar
  107. Garner, G.B. and C.N. Cornell. 1978. Fescue foot in cattle. p. 45–62. In T.D. Wylie and L.G. Morehouse (Eds). Mycotoxic Fungi, Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicoses. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York. Vol. 2.Google Scholar
  108. Genicot, B., F. Mouligneau, J.K. Lindsey, P. Lambert, R. Close and P. Lekeux. 1993. Induction of a serotonin-2 receptor blockade during early or late stage of acute respiratory distress syndrome in double-muscled calves: a comparative study. J. Vet. Med. A. 40: 241–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Gerlach, H., C. Esposito and D.M. Stem. 1990. Modulation of endothelial hemostatic properties: an active role in the host response. Ann. Rev. Med. 41: 15–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Gimbrone, M.A., Jr. 1986. Vascular Endothelium in Hemostasis and Thrombosis. Churchill Livingstone, NY.Google Scholar
  111. Glazer, G., K.A. Myers, and E.R. Davies. 1966. Ergot poisoning. Postgrad. Med. J. 42: 562–568.Google Scholar
  112. Goodreau, J.L., K.J. Lookingland and K.E. Moore. 1994. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2 receptor-mediated regulation of periventricular-hypophysial dopaminergic neuronal activity and the secretion of alpha-melanocyte-stimu-lating hormone. J. Pharmacol. Exper. Therap. 268: 175–179.Google Scholar
  113. Gould, L.S. and W.D. Hohenboken. 1993. Differences between progeny of beef sires in susceptibility to fescue toxicosis. J. Anim. Sci. 71: 3025–3032.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Greatorex, J.C. and P.G. Mantle. 1973. Experimental ergotism in sheep. Res. Vet. Sci. 15: 337–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Greatorex, J.C. and P.G. Mantle. 1974. Effect of rye ergot on the pregnant sheep. J. Reprod. Fertil. 37: 33–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Greene, F.L., S. Ariyan and H.C. Stansel, Jr. 1977. Mesenteric and peripheral vascular ischemia secondary to ergotism. Surgery 81: 176–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Gunning, S.J., R.M. Hagan and M.B. Tyers. 1987. Cisplatin induces biochemical and histological changes in the small intestine of the ferret. Br. J. Pharmacol. 90: 135 P.Google Scholar
  118. Gustin, P., A.R. Dhem, P. Lekenx, F. Lomba, F.J. Landser and K.P. Van DeWoestijne. 1989. Regulation of bronchomotor tone in conscious calves. J. Vet. Pharamcol. Therap. 12: 58–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Hart, C.M. and E.R. Block. 1989. Lung serotonin metabolism. Clin. Chest Med. 10: 59–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Hawkes, A.D., P.P. Embling and N.R. Towers. 1993. Breeding for resistance to ryegrass staggers. NZ Vet. J. 41: 217–218.Google Scholar
  121. Hayek, M.G., G.A. Boissoneault, G.E. Mitchell, Jr., L.P. Bush and R.G. Powell. 1991. Effect of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (loline, N-methyl-loline, N-acetyl-loline, N-formyl-loline) on the mitogen response of bovine and murine lymphocytes. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. J. 5: 567 (abstr.).Google Scholar
  122. Hays, D.A., E.L. Piper, R.W. McNew and A.S. Moubarak. 1991. The effects of ergopeptide fractions on in vitro pituitary prolactin release in rats. Proc., Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop. Atlanta, GA., Nov. 11–12. p. 25.Google Scholar
  123. Hedberg, C.A. and J.B. Kirsner. 1965. Mesenteric vascular insufficiency. Ann. Intern. Med. 63: 535–538.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Heffner, J.E., S.A. Sahn and J.E. Repine. 1987. The role of platelets in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 135: 482–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Heinsimer, J.A. and R.J. Lefkowitz. 1982. Adrenergic receptors: biochemistry, regulation, molecular mechanism and clinical implications. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 100: 641–658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Hemken, R.W., J.A. Boling, L.S. Bull, R.H. Hatton, R.C. Buckner and L.P. Bush. 1981. Interaction of environmental temperature and anti-quality factors on the severity of summer fescue toxicosis. J. Anim. Sci. 52: 710–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Hems, D.A. and P.D. Whitton. 1980. Control of hepatic glycogenolysis. Physiol. Rev. 60: 1–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Henson, M.C., E.L. Piper and L.B. Daniels. 1987. Effects of induced fescue toxicosis on plasma and tissue catecholamine concentrations in sheep. Dom. Anim. Endocrinol. 4: 7–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Hill, N.S., F.N. Thompson, D.L. Dawe and J.A. Stuedemann. 1994. Antibody binding of circulating ergot alkaloids in cattle grazing tall fescue. Am. J. Vet. Res. 55: 419–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Hirata, Y., Y. Takagi, Y. Fukuda and F. Marumo. 1989. Endothelin is a potent mitogen for rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Atherosclerosis 78: 225–228.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Hoorn, C.M. and R.A. Roth. 1993. Monocrotaline pyrrole-induced changes in angiotensin-converting enzyme activity of cultured pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Br. J. Pharmacol. 110: 597–602.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Hoveland, C.S., R.L. Haaland, C.C. King, Jr., W.B. Anthony, E.M. Clark, J.A. McGuire, L.A. Smith, H.W. Grimes and J.L. Holliman. 1980. Association of Epichloe typhina fungus and steer performance on tall fescue pasture. Agron. J. 72: 1064–1065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Hoveland, C. 1991. Survey reveals heavy losses from toxic tall fescue. Hay and Forage Grower 6: 28–30.Google Scholar
  134. Hoveland, C.S. 1993. Economic importance of Acremonium endophytes. Agric. Ecosyst. and Environ., 44: 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Hume, D.E. 1993. Agronomic performance of New Zealand pastures: implications of Acremonium presence. p. 31–38. In D.E. Hume, G.C.M. Latch and H.S. Easton (eds.). Proc. 2nd Internat. Sympos. on Acremonium/Grass Interactions. Ag Research, Grasslands Research Centre, Palmerston North, NZ. pp. 31–38, 1993.Google Scholar
  136. Hurley, W.L., E.M. Convey, K. Keung, L.A. Edgerton and R.W. Hempken. 1980. Bovine prolactin, TSH, T4 and T3 concentrations as affected by tall fescue summer toxicosis and temperature. J. Anim. Sci. 51: 374–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Ivy, R.L., R.R. Evans, L.R. Ballweber and C.P. Bagley. 1993. Gain response of stockers grazing tall fescue using three deworming regimes. Proc. Tall fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SERAIG-8, Atlanta, GA. p. 31.Google Scholar
  138. Jackson, J.A., Jr., R.W. Hemken, J.A. Boling, R.J. Harmon, R.C. Buckner and L.P. Bush. I984a. Loline alkaloids in tall fescue hay and seed and their relationship to summer fescue toxicosis in cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 67: 104–109.Google Scholar
  139. Jackson, J.A., Jr., R.W. Hemken, J.A. Boling, R.J. Harmon, R.C. Buckner and L.P. Bush. 19846. Summer fescue toxicity in dairy steers fed tall fescue seed. J. Anim. Sci. 58: 1057–1061.Google Scholar
  140. Jacobson, D.R., W.M. Miller, D.M. Seath, S.G. Yates, H.L. Tookey and I.A. Wolff 1963. Nature of fescue toxicity and progress toward identification of the toxic entity. J. Dairy Sci. 46: 416–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Jard, S., B. Cantau and K.H. Jakobs. 1981. Angiotensin II and alpha-adrenergic agonists inhibit rat liver adenylate cyclase. J. Biol. Chem. 256: 2603–2606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Jensen, R., A.W. Deem and D. Knaus. 1956. Fescue lameness in cattle. I. Experimental production of the disease. Am. J. Vet. Res. p. 196–201. April.Google Scholar
  143. Jernigan, A.D., N.H. Booth, J.D. Robbins and J.M. Zahner. 1986. Effect of yohimbine hydrochloride on serum prolactin concentration in the rat: Possible antagonist for fescue toxicosis. Am. J. Vet. Res. 47: 949–952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Jessep, T.M., C.H.R. Dent, J.B. Kemp, B. Christie, P.J. Ahrens, L.W. Burgess and W.L. Bryden. 1987. Bovine idiopathic hyperthermia. Aust. Vet. J. 64: 353–354.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Jie, K., P.V. Brummelen,. Vermey, P.B.M.W.M. Timmermans and P.A.V. Zwieten. 1987. Postsynaptic alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenoceptors in human blood vessels: interactions with exogenous and endogenous catecholamines. Europ. J. Clin. Invest. 17: 174–181.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Johnson, E.A., C.E. Tsai, J. Lucci, Y. Harrison-Shahan and A.J. Azzaro. 1992. Dopamine D2 synthesis-modulating receptors are present in the striatum of the guinea pig. Neuropharmacol. 31: 95–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Johnson, E.A., C.E. Tsai, Y. Harrison-Shahan and A.J. Azzaro. 1993. Serotonin 5-HTIA receptors mediate inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylation in rat striatum. J. Pharmacol. Exper. Therap. 266: 133–141.Google Scholar
  148. Johnson, M.C., D.L. Dahlman, M.R. Siegel, L.P. Bush, G.C. Latch, D.A. Potter and D.R. Varney. 1985. Insect feeding deterrents in endophyte-infected tall fescue. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49: 568–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Joost, R.E. 1995. Acremonium in fescue and ryegrass: Boon or bane. J. Anim. Sci. 73: 881–888.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Kalkman, H.O., G. Engel and D. Hoyer. 1984. Three distinct subtypes of serotonergic receptors mediate the triphasic blood pressure response to serotonin in rats. J. Hypertens. 2: 143–145.Google Scholar
  151. Kalkman, H.O., V. Neumann and V. Brauner. 1989. Supersensitivity of atherosclerotic rabbit aorta to ergometrine is mediated by 5-HT, receptors. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 41: 876–878.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Katz, J. and R.M. Vogel. 1967. Abdominal angina as a complication of methysergide maleate therapy. JAMA 199: 124–125.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Kauffman, R., J.S. Bean, W.E. Bloomquist and M.L. Cohen. 1993. Vascular serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamines receptor blockade by LY215840: Lack of effect upon neointima formation in balloon-injured rat carotid arteries. J. Pharmacol. Exper. Therap. 266: 450–455.Google Scholar
  154. Kaya, F., C.T.M. Van Duin, G.H. Veendendaal and A.S.J.P.AM. Van Miert. 1992. Food intake and rumen motility in dwarf goats. Effects of some serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists. Vet. Res. Commun. 16: 379–390.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Kerley, M.S., B.T. Larson, M.D. Samford and J.T. Turner. 1994. Involvement of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in ergovaline response of cattle. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SERAIEG-8, Atlanta, GA. p. 39.Google Scholar
  156. Krisch, I., M.V. Budihna and R. Rucman. 1992. Structure-activity study of some newly synthesized ergoline derivatives on 5-HTZ receptors and alpha-adrenoceptors in rabbit isolated aorta. Pharmacol. 45: 195–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Kulcsar-Gergely, J. and A. Kulcsar. 1989. Alpha-adrenergic receptors in the regulation of liver functions. Acta Pharmaceut. Hung. 59: 1–9.Google Scholar
  158. Kumar, A. and J.C. Thurman. 1979. Cardiopulmonary, hemocytologic and biochemical effects of xylazine in goats. Lab. Anim. Sci. 29: 486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Lamberts, S.W.J. and R.M. MacLeod. 1990. Regulation of prolactin secretion at the level of the lactotroph Physiol. Rev. 70: 279–318.Google Scholar
  160. Larson, B.T. 1993a. D2 Dopamine receptors in fescue toxicosis. Ph.D. Dissertation. Univ. of Missouri, Columbia.Google Scholar
  161. Larson, B.T., M.D. Samford, J.T. Turner, M.S. Kerley and J.S. Paterson. 1993b. Effect of ergovaline on dopaminergic and adrenergic receptors. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SERAIEG-8, Atlanta, GA. p. 36–37.Google Scholar
  162. Larson, B.T., S.B. Holste, M.D. Samford, M.S. Kerley, J.T. Turner and J.A. Paterson. 1993c. Prazosin reduces body temperature and increases food intake of rats consuming endophyte-infected tall fescue without changing brain monomaine receptor density. J. Anim. Sci. 71:Suppl. 1.Google Scholar
  163. Larson, B.T., D.M. Sullivan, M.D. Samford, M.S. Kerley, J.A. Paterson and J.T. Turner. 1994. D2 dopamine recep- tor response to endophyte-infected tall fescue and an antagonist in the rat. J. Anim. Sci. 72: 2905–2910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Larson, B.T., M.D. Samford, J.T. Turner, J.M. Camden, E.L. Piper, A. Moubarak, M. S. Kerley and J.A. Paterson. 1994. Ergovaline binding and activation of D2 dopamine receptors in GH4ZR., cells. J. Anim. Sci. 72 (Suppl. 1): 77.Google Scholar
  165. Larson, B.T., M.D. Samford, J.M. Camden, E.L. Piper, M.S. Kerley, J.A. Paterson and J.T. Turner. 1995. Ergovaline binding and activation of D2 dopamine receptors in GH4ZR7 cells. J. Anim. Sci. 73: 1396–1400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Latch, G.C., M.J. Christenson and G.J. Samuels. 1984. Five endophytes of Lolium and Festuca in New Zealand. Mycotoxin 20: 535–550.Google Scholar
  167. Latch, G.C., L.R. Potter and B.F. Tyler. 1987. Incidence of endophytes in seeds from collections of Lolium and Festuca species. Ann. Appl. Biol. 111: 59–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Lauriault, L.M., C.T. Dougherty, N.W. Bradley and P.L. Cornelius. 1990. Thiamin supplementation and the ingestive behavior of beef cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue. J. Anim. Sci. 68: 1245–1253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Lefkowitz, R.J., B.B. Hoffman and P. Taylor. 1996. Neurotransmission; the autonomic and somatic motor nervous system. p. 105–139. In J.G. Hardman, L.E. Limbird, P.B. Molinoff, R.W. Ruddon and A.G. Gilman (eds.). Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 9`h Edition. McGraw Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  170. Lewis, B.M., C. Dieguez, M. Lewis, R. Hall and M.F. Scanlon. 1986. Hypothalamic D2 receptors mediate the preferential release of somatostatin-28 in response to dopaminergic stimulation. Endocrinol. 119: 1712–1717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Lewis, T. 1935. The manner in which necrosis arises in the fowl’s comb under ergot poisoning. Clin. Sci. 2: 43–55.Google Scholar
  172. Linden, A.S., D.J.M. Desmecht, H. Amory, F.A. Rollin, C.L. Michaux and R. Lekeux. 1993. Pulmonary response to intravenous administration of 5-hydroxytryptamine after type-2 receptor blockade in healthy calves. Am. J. Vet. Res. 54: 168–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Lindsay, A.D. and J.L. Feldman. 1993. Modulation of respiratory activity of neonatal rat phrenic motoneurones by serotonin. J. of Physiol. 461: 213–233.Google Scholar
  174. Linnabary, R.D. 1987. Phenothiazine and toxic fescue. Tenn. Anim. Health Newsl. 12: 1–2.Google Scholar
  175. Linnabary, R.D., J.W. Oliver, C.R. Reinemeyer and B.H. Erickson. 1987. Effect of daily-dose phenothiazine on Senepol cattle maintained on fungus-infected tall fescue pastures. Inter. Senopol Res. Sympos. I: 51–56.Google Scholar
  176. Lipham, L.B., N.H. Booth, A.D. Jernigan, J.D. Robbins and R.C. Hatch. 1986. Effect of clonidine, quipazine, and LY53857 on the prolactin-suppressant action of bromocriptine in rats. Am. J. Vet. Res. 47: 1089–1091.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Lipham, L.B., J.K. Porter, W.P. Norred, N.H. Booth and J.D. Robbins. 1987. Quipazine-metoclopramide inhibition of CB-154-induced prolactin suppression in rats: neurotransmitter-metabolite correlations (42475). Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. Med. 184: 250–255.Google Scholar
  178. Lipham, L.B., F.N. Thompson, J.A. Stuedemann and J.L. Sartin. 1989. Effects of metoclopramide on steers grazing endophyte infected fescue. J. Anim. Sci. 67: 1090–1097.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Lipinski, J.F., B.M. Cohen, G.S. Zulenko and C.M. Watemaux. 1987. Adrenoceptors and the pharmacology of affective illness: A unifying theory. Life Sci. 40: 1947–1964.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Lipsey, R.J., D.W. Vogt, G.B. Gamer, L.L. Miles and C.N. Cornell. 1992. Rectal temperature changes of heat and endophyte stressed calves produced by tolerant or susceptible sires. J. Anim. Sci. 70 (Suppl. 1 ): 188 (Abstr).Google Scholar
  181. Longo, U.G. and A. Loizzo. 1978. Evaluation of the central effects of ergot alkaloids by means of electroencephalography. Pharmacol. 16 (Suppl. 1): 189–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Lyons, P.C., R.D. Plattner and C.W. Bacon. 1986. Occurrence of peptide and clavine ergot alkaloids in tall fescue grass. Science 232: 487–488.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. MacDonald, E. and R. Virtanen. 1992. Review of the pharmacology of medetomidine and detomidine: Two chemically similar alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonists used as veterinary sedatives. p. 181–191. In C.E. Short and A.V. Poynak (eds.). Animal Pain. Churchill Livingstone, New York.Google Scholar
  184. MacLean, M.R., R.A. Clayton, S.W. Hillis, P.D. McIntyre, A.J. Peacock and A.G.B. Templeton. 1994. 5-HTi-receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in bovine isolated pulmonary arteries: Influences of vascularendothelium and tone. Pulm. Pharmacol. 7: 65–72.Google Scholar
  185. Manev, H., D. Pericic and D. Much-Seler. 1989. Inhibitory influence of dihydroergosine on the aggressiveness of rats and mice. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behay. 32: 111–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Mantle, P.G. 1978. Ergotism in cattle, sheep and swine. p. 145–275. In T.D. Wyllie and L.G. Morehouse (eds.). Mycotoxic Fungi, Mycotoxins, Mycotoxicoses. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  187. Martin, G.R. 1994. Vascular receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine: distribution, function and classification. Pharmac. Ther. 62: 283–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Martin, T. and W.C. Edwards. 1986. Protecting grazing livestock from tall fescue toxicity. Vet. Medicine, p. 1162–1168 Dec.Google Scholar
  189. Martin, T.R., M.L. Cohen and J.M. Drazen. 1994. Serotonin-induced pulmonary responses are mediated by the 5HT2 receptor in the mouse. J. Pharmacol. Exper. Therap. 268: 104–109.Google Scholar
  190. Maurer, G., E. Schreier, S. Delaborde, H.R. Loosli, R. Nufer and A.P. Shukla. 1982. Fate and disposition of bromocriptine in animals and man. L Structure elucidation of the metabolites. Europ. J. Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet. 7: 281–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Maurer, G., E. Schreier, S. Delaborde, R. Nufer and A.P. Shukla. 1983. Fate and disposition of bromocriptine in animals and man. Il. Absorption, elimination and metabolism. Europ. J. Drug. Metab. Pharmacokinet. 8: 51–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. McCarthy, B.G. and S.J. Peroutka. 1989. Comparative neuropharmacology of dihydroergotamine and sumatriptan (GR43175). Headache 29: 420–422.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. McCollough, S., E. Piper, A. Moubarak, Z. Johnson, J. Oliver, R. Petroski and M. Flieger. 1993. Effects of fescue alkaloids on peripheral blood flow and prolactin secretion in calves. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SERAIEG-8, Atlanta, GA. Oct. 25–26. pg. 7.Google Scholar
  194. McCollough, S., E. Piper, A. Moubarak, Z. Johnson and M. Flieger. 1994. Effects of fescue alkaloids on peripheral blood flow and prolactin secretion in calves. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SERAIEG-8, Atlanta, GA. Oct. 23–25. pp. 9–10.Google Scholar
  195. McComb, R.B., G.N. Bowers, Jr. and S. Posen. 1979. Distribution in Vertebrates. p. 51–152. Alkaline Phosphatase. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  196. McLoughlin, M. and R. Sanders. 1972. Ergotism causing peripheral vascular ischemia. Rocky Mtn. Med. J. 69: 45–49.Google Scholar
  197. McPherson, G.A. and P.M. Beart. 1983. The selectivity of some ergot derivatives for alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenoceptors of rat cerebral cortex. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 91: 363–369.Google Scholar
  198. McPherson, G.A. 1984. In vitro selectivity of lisuride and other ergot derivatives for alpha-1 an dalpha-2 adrenoceptors. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 97: 151–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Miksch, D. 1994. Fescue toxicity/problems and possible solutions. Proc. Am. Assoc. Bovine Pract. Ann. Mtg. (271h). Pittsburgh, PA. Sept.Google Scholar
  200. Milanes, M.V., J.A. Martinez and M.L. Vargas. 1989. Influence of dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems on the release of opoid peptides in guinea pig ileum. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 41: 607–6611.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Miles, C.O., S.C. Munday, A.L. Wilkins, R.M. Ede, L.P. Meagher and I. Garthwaite. 1993. Chemical aspects of ryegrass staggers. Proc. Sympos. on Mycotoxicoses of Grassland Farming. N.Z. Vet. J. 41: 216–217.Google Scholar
  202. Miller, B.F., K.L. Armstrong, L.A. Wilson, W.D. Hohenboken and R.G. Saacke. 1994. Variation among inbred and linecross mice in response to fescue toxicosis. J. Anim. Sci. 72: 2896–2904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Minneman, K.P., A. Hedberg and P.B. Molinoff. 1979. Comparison of beta adrenergic receptor subtypes in mammalian tissues. J. Pharmacol. Exper. Therap. 211: 502–504.Google Scholar
  204. Molteni, A., W.F. ward, C.H. Tsao, C.D. Port and N.H. Solliday. 1984. Monocrotaline-induced pulmonary endothelial dysfunction in rats. P.S.E.B.M. 176: 88–94.Google Scholar
  205. Moncada, S., R.M.J. Palmer and E.A. Higgs. 1990. Nitric oxide: The endogenous regulator of vascular tone. p. 1–6. In J.B. Warren (ed.). The Endothelium. An Introduction to Current Research. Wiley Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  206. Moochhala, S.M., E.J.D. Lee, G.T.M. Hu, O.S. Koh and G. Becket. 1989. Effects of bromocriptine on hepatic cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase system. Japan. J. Pharmacol. 49: 285–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Morgan, N.G., L.E. Waynick and J.H. Exton. 1983. Characterization of the alpha-1 adrenergic control of hepatic cAMP in male rates. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 96: 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Morrow, D.A., D. Hillman, A.W. Dade and H. Kitchen. 1979. Clinical investigation of a dairy herd with the Fat Cow Syndrome. JAVMA 174: 161–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Motjope, L., J.K. Miller, J.C. Waller and H.A. Fribourg. 1994. Is oxidative stress in cattle increased by grazing tall fescue? Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  210. Moubarak, A.S. and E.L. Piper. 1992. Effect of ergot alkaloids and lysergic acid amide on kidney Na+/K+ATPase. Proc. Tall Fescue toxicosis Workshop, SERAIEG-8, Memphis, TN. pg. 6.Google Scholar
  211. Moubarak, A.S., E.L. Piper and Z.B. Johnson. 1993a. Interaction of ergot alkaloids with kidney Na+/K+ATPase and Mg’. ATPase. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SERAIEG-8, Atlanta, GA. Oct. 25–26. pg. 8.Google Scholar
  212. Moubarak, A.S., E.L. Piper, C.P. West and Z.B. Johnson. 1993b. Interaction of purified ergovaline from endophyte-infected tall fescue with synaptosomal ATPase enzyme system. J. Agric. and Food Chem. 41: 407–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Moyer, J.L., N.S. Hill, S.A. Martin and C.S. Agee. 1993. Degradation of ergoline alkaloids during in vitro ruminal digestion of tall fescue forage. Crop Sci. 33: 264–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Muir, W.W., A.E. Wagner and K.W. Hinchcliff. 1992. Cardiorespiratory and MAC-reducing effects of alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists in horses. p. 201–212. In C.E. Short and A.V. Poznak (eds.). Animal Pain. Churchill Livingstone, New York.Google Scholar
  215. Müller-Schweinitzer, E., H. Weidmann, R. Salzmann, D. Hauser, H.P. Weber, T.J. Petcher and T. Bucher. 1978. Basic pharmacological properties. p. 87–196. In B. Berde and H.O. Schild (eds.). Ergot Alkaloids and Related Compounds. Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Neal, W.D. and S.P. Schmidt. Effects of feeding Kentucky 31 tall fescue seed infected with Acremonium coenophialum to laboratory rats. J. Anim. Sci., 61: 603–611, 1985.Google Scholar
  217. Nolan, A., A. Livingston and A. Waterman. 1986. The effects of alpha, adrenoceptor agonists on airway pressure in anesthetized sheep. J. Vet. Pharamcol. Therap. 9: 157–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Nolan, A.M. and B.A. Callingham. 1990. Effects of aspirin on xylazine-induced hypoxaemia in sheep. Res. Vet. Sci. 48: 386–388.Google Scholar
  219. Nutting, D.F. and E.A. Tolley. 1992. Possible induction of pancreatitis by endophyte-positive tall fescue. Proc. Tall fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SERAIEG-8. Memphis, TN. Nov. p. 40–41.Google Scholar
  220. Nutting, D.F., E.A. Tolley, L.A. Toth, S.D. Ballard and M.A. Brown. 1992. Serum amylase activity and calcium and magnesium concentrations in young cattle grazing fescue and Bermuda grass pastures. Am. J. Vet. Res. 53: 834–839.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Oliver, J.W. 1988. Report of isolated bovine vessel response to alkaloids of tall fescue. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SRIEG-37, Atlanta, GA. Oct. 24–25.Google Scholar
  222. Oliver, J.W. and L.K. Abney. 1989. Report of isolated bovine vessel response to alkaloids of tall fescue. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SRIEG-37, Atlanta, GA. Nov. 13–14. pg. 93.Google Scholar
  223. Oliver, J.W., R.G. Powell, L.K. Abney, R.D. Linnabary and R.J. Petroski. 1990. N-acetyl loline-induced vasoconstriction of the lateral saphenous vein (cranial branch) of cattle. In S.S. Quisenberry and R.E. Joost (Eds.). Proc. Internat. Sympos. Acremonium/Grass Interactions. New Orleans, LA., Nov. 5–7. p. 239–243.Google Scholar
  224. Oliver J.W., R.D. Linnabary, L.K. Abney and H.S. Adair, III. 1991. Development of bovine animal model for study of toxic fescue alkaloids using the AlzetTM osmotic pump. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SRIEG-37, Atlanta, GA. Nov. 11–12. p. 91–92.Google Scholar
  225. Oliver, J.W., A.J. Robinson, L.K. Abney and R.D. Linnabary. 1992a. Effects of phenothiazine and thiabendazole on bovine dorsal pedal vein contractility induced by ergonovine and serotonin: Potential for alleviation of fescue toxicity. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 15: 247–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Oliver, J.W., L.K. Abney, J.R. Strickland and R.D. Linnabary. I 992b. Vasoconstrictor effect of lysergamide in bovine vasculature. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SERAIEG-8, Memphis, TN. Nov. 16–17. pg. 39.Google Scholar
  227. Oliver, J.W., E.L. Piper, R.D. Linnabary, L.K. Abney, and A.S. Moubarak. 1993a. Response of blood vessels to purified ergovaline. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SERAIEG-8, Atlanta, GA. Oct. 25–26. pg. 51.Google Scholar
  228. Oliver, J.W., L.K. Abney, J.R. Strickland and R.D. Linnabary. 1993b. Vasoconstriction in bovine vasculature induced by the tall fescue alkaloid lysergamide. J. Anim. Sci. 71: 2708–2713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Oliver, J.W., R.D. Linnabary, J.C. Waller, H. Fribourg, S. Adair, J.R. Strickland, L.K. Abney and E.M. Bailey. 1993c. Effects of chronic exposure of cattle to the endophyte on blood vessel response. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SERAIEG-8, Atlanta, GA. Oct. 25–26. pg. 51.Google Scholar
  230. Oliver, J.W., R.D. Linnabary, L.K. Abney and J.R. Strickland. 1993d. Response of blood vessels to N-acetyl loline and serotonin. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SERAIEG-8, Atlanta, GA. Oct. 25–26. pg. 51.Google Scholar
  231. Oliver, J.W., R.D. Linnabary, L.K. Abney, K.R. van Manen, R. Knoop, and H.S. Adair, Ill. 1994a. Evaluation of a dosing method for studying ergonovine effects in cattle. Am. J. Vet. Res. 55: 173–176.Google Scholar
  232. Oliver, J.W., J.R. Strickland, R.D. Linnabary, L.K. Abney, E.M. Bailey, J.C. Waller and H.A. Fribourg. 1994b. Peripheral blood vessel (bovine) reactivity to the toxins of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SERAIEG-8, Atlanta, GA. Oct. 23–25. p. 51–53.Google Scholar
  233. Oliver, J.W., J.R. Strickland, E.M. Bailey, L.K. Abney, J.C. Waller and H.A. Fribourg. 1994c. Alkaloid effects on bovine adrenal function in cattle grazing endophyte-free and endophyte-infected tall fescue. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SERAIEG-8, Atlanta, GA. Oct. 23–25. p. 53–55.Google Scholar
  234. Oliver, J.W., K.D. Gwinn and B.B. Reddick. 1995. Unpublished results of anti-fescue toxicosis vaccine trial, April to September.Google Scholar
  235. Oliver, J.W., R.D. Linnabary, J.R. Strickland, A.E. Schultze, J.C. Waller, H.A. Fribourg, L.K. Abney, E.M. Bailey and M.A. Barnhill. 1996. Characterization of inflammatory response to ergot alkaloid presence in toxic tall fescue. Unpublished dataGoogle Scholar
  236. Oliver, J.W. and A.E. Schultze. 1997. Histologic lesions in cattle fed toxic tall fescue grass. (Abstr) Submitted, Soc. of Toxicology, 36th Ann. Mtg., Cincinnati, OH. March, 1997.Google Scholar
  237. Osborn, T.G.; S.P. Schmidt, D.N. Marple, C.H. Rahe and J.R. Steenstra. 1992. Effect of consuming fungus-infected and fungus-free tall fescue and ergotamine tartrate on selected physiological variables of cattle in environmentally controlled conditions. J. Anim. Sci. 70: 2501–2509.Google Scholar
  238. Osweiler, G.D. 1981. Ergot (Gangrenous). p. 404–405. In J.L. Howard (ed.). Current Veterinary Therapy. Food Animal Practice. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  239. Palmer, R.M.J., A.G. Ferrige and S. Moncada. 1987. Nitric oxide release accounts for the biological activity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Nature 327: 524–526.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Papazoglou, L., D. Raptopoulos, M. Kritsepi and A. Galatos. 1993. Effects of alpha-2 adrenergic drugs on blood platelets in sheep. J. Vet. Aneaesth. 20: 30–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Papazoglou, L., D. Raptopoulos and N. Kokolis. 1994. Increased airway pressure in response to xylazine is inhibited by both atipamezole and atropine in sheep. J. Vet. Med. A. 41: 568–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Paterson, J., C. Forcherio, B. Larson, M. Samford and M. Kerley. 1995. The effects of fescue toxicosis on beef cattle production. J. Anim. Sci. 73: 889–898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Peters, C.W., K.N. Grigsby, C.G. Aldrich, J.A. Paterson, R.J. Lipsey, M.S. Kerley and G.B. Garner. 1992. Performance, forage utilization, and ergovaline consumption by beef cows grazing endophyte fungus-infected tall fescue, endophyte fungus-free tall fescue, or orchardgrass pastures. J. Anim. Sci. 70: 1550–1561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Piper, E. 1988. Influence of fescue toxicity on kidney function. Proc. Tall Fescue toxicosis Workshop, SERIEG37, Atlanta, GA. pg. 21.Google Scholar
  245. Piper, E., A. Moubarak and A.L. Goetsch. 1989. Physiological changes from grazing endophyte-infected ryegrass. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SERIEG-37, Atlanta, GA. pg. 24.Google Scholar
  246. Piper, E.L., D.A. Hays, D.S. Hubbell and S.M. Mashburn. 1991. Effect of long term grazing of endophyte-infected fescue on liver enzymes. Proc. Tall fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SRIEG-37, Atlanta, GA. pg. 26.Google Scholar
  247. Piper, E.L. and A.S. Moubarak. 1992. Effects of ergovaline and the lysergic acid amide derivative ergonovine on prolactin secretion in vitro. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SERAIEG-8, Memphis, TN. pg. 5.Google Scholar
  248. Piper, E.L. and A.S. Moubarak. 1992. Metabolism of fescue alkaloids by steers. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SERAIEG-8, Memphis, TN. pg. 6.Google Scholar
  249. Porter, J.K., J.D. Robbins, W.P. Norred, G.B. garner and C.W. Bacon. 1985. Serum prolactin and brain catecholamine metabolite depression in rats administered extracts of endophyte-infected fescue. J. Agric. Food Chem. 33: 34–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Porter, J.K., J.A. Stuedemann, F.N. Thompson, Jr. and L.B. Lipham. 1990 Neuroendocrine measurements in steers grazed on endophyte-infected fescue. J. Anim. Sci. 68: 3285–3292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Porter, J.K. and F.N. Thompson, Jr. 1992. Effects of fescue toxicosis on reproduction in livestock. J. Anim. Sci. 70: 1594–1603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Porter, J.K., J.A. Stuedemann, F.N. Thompson, B.A. Buchanan and H.A. Tucker. 1993. Melatonin and pineal neurochemicals in steers grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue: effects of metoclopramide. J. Anim. Sci. 71: 1526–1531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Porter, J.K. 1994. Chemical constituents of grass endophytes. p. 103–123. In C.W. Bacon and J.F. White, Jr. (Eds.). Biotechnology of Endophytic Fungi of Grasses. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  254. Porter, J.K. 1995. Analysis of endophyte toxins: Fescue and other grasses toxic to livestock. J. Anim. Sci. 73: 871–880.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Powell, R.G., R.J. Petroski and K. Clay. 1991. Alkaloids of Stipa robusta (Sleepygrass) infected with an Acremonium endophyte as compared to the alkaloids of tall fescue. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SRIEG-37, Atlanta, GA. p. 37–39.Google Scholar
  256. Prestidge, R.A. 1993. Causes and control of perennial ryegrass staggers in New Zealand. Agric. Ecosys. Environ. 44: 283–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Quinones-Baldrich, W.J. 1993. Myointimal hyperplasia: the lesion. p. 1–11. In W.J. Quinones-Baldrich (ed.). Pharmacologic Suppression of Intimal Hyperplasia. R.G. Landes Co., Austin, TX.Google Scholar
  258. Radi, R., T.P. Cosgrove, J.S. Beckman and B.A. Freeman. 1993. Peroxynitrite-induced luminal chemiluminescence. Biochem. J. 290: 51–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Raptopoulos, D., B.M.Q. Weaver, M. Papanastassopoulou, G.E. Staddon and T.J. Parkinson. 1995. The effect of xylazine on plasma thromboxane B, concentration in sheep. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 18: 438–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Read, J.C. and B.J. Camp. 1986. The effect of the endophyte Acremonium coenophialum in tall fescue on animal performance, toxicity and stand maintenance. Agron. J. 78: 848–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Reddick, B.B., K.D. Gwinn and J.W. Oliver. 1995. Vaccine containing a protein alkaloid conjugate for the treatment of fescue toxicosis. U.S. Patent No. 5, 468, 486. Nov. 21.Google Scholar
  262. Redmond, L.M., D.L. Cross, J.R. Strickland and S.W. Kennedy. 1992. Efficiency of domperidone and sulpiride as treatments for equine fescue toxicosis in gravid mares grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue. Amer. Soc. An. Sci. Southern Section Absts. pg. 21.Google Scholar
  263. Reindel, J.F., P.E. Ganey, J.G. Wagner, R.F. Slocombe and R.A. Roth. 1990. Development of morphologic, hemodynamic and biochemical changes in lungs of rats given monocrotaline pyrrole. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 106: 179–200.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Reindel, J.F. and R.A. Roth. 1991. The effects of monocrotaline pyrrole on cultured bovine pulmonary artery endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Am. J. Pathol. 138: 707–719.Google Scholar
  265. Reynolds, J.C. 1989. Prokinetic agents: a key in the future of gastroenterology. Gastroenterol. Clin. N. Amer. 18: 437–457.Google Scholar
  266. Rhodes, M.T., J.A. Paterson, M.S. Kerley, H.E. Garner and M.H. Laughlin. 1991. Reduced blood flow to peripheral and core body tissues in sheep and cattle induced by endophyte-infected tall fescue. J. Anim. Sci. 69: 2033–2043.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Rice, R.L., G.G. Schurig, D.J. Blodgett, W.S. Swecker, C.D. Thatcher and D.E. Eversole. 1995a. Immunization of mice against fescue toxicosis. Proc. Tall fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SERAIEG-8, Nashville, TN. p. 66–68.Google Scholar
  268. Rice, R.L., G.G. Schurig, D.J. Blodgett, W.S. Swecker, J.P. Fontenot, V.G. Allen and R.M. Akers. 1995b. Humoral immune responses of cattle maintained on fescue pastures. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SERAIEG-8, Nashville, TN. p. 69–70.Google Scholar
  269. Richter, A.M. and V.P. Banker. 1973. Carotid ergotism. Radiology 106: 339–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Robbins, J.D. 1983. The tall fescue toxicosis problem. Proc. Tall Fescue ToxicosisWorkshop, Atlanta, GA. Mar. 17–18. p. 1–4.Google Scholar
  271. Roberts, C. 1993. Fescue toxicosis simplified. University of Missouri, Extension Publications Office. Rodgers, G.M. 1988. Hemostatic properties of normal and perturbed vascular cells. FASEB J. 2: 116–123.Google Scholar
  272. Roger, T. and Y. Ruckebusch. 1987. Colonic alpha-2 adrenoceptor-mediated responses in the pony. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 10: 310–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Roquebert, J. 1987. La dihydroergokryptine contracte l’appareil vasculaire du rat par l’intermediaire des alpha-2 adrenorecepteurs post-synaptiques. Ann. Pharmaceut. Franca. 45: 343–346.Google Scholar
  274. Roquebert, J. and B. Grenie. 1987. Heart rate lowering effects of dihydroergotamine in rats. Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. 290: 25–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Ross, A., W.L. Bryden, W. Bakau and L.W. Burgess. 1989. Induction of heat stress in beef cattle by feeding the ergots of Claviceps purpurea. Aust. Vet. J. 66: 247–249.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Rottinghaus, G.E., G.B. Garner, C.N. Cornell and J.L. Ellis. 1991. HPLC method for quantitating ergovaline in endophyte-infested tall fescue: seasonal variation of ergovaline levels in stems with leaf sheaths, leaf blades and seed heads. J. Agric. Food Chem. 39: 112–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Roylance, J.T., N.S. Hill and C.S. Agee. 1994. Ergovaline and peramine production in endophyte-infected tall fescue: Independent regulation and effects of plant and endophyte-genotype. J. Chem. Ecol. 20: 2171–2183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Ruckebusch, Y. and L. Ooms. 1983. Selective blockade of the responses of reticulo-ruminal muscle to 5-HT in sheep. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 6: 127–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Ruckebusch, Y. and C. Allal. 1987. Depression of reticulo-ruminal motor functions through the stimulation of alpha-2 adrenoceptors. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 10: 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Ruffolo, R.R., A.J. Nichols and J.T. Hieble. 1991. Mini review. Metabolic regulation by alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Life Sci. 49: 171–183.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Sadzot, B., J.M. Baraban, R.A. Glennon, R.A. Lyon, S. Leonhardt, C.R. Jan and M. Titeler. 1989. Hallucinogenic drug interactions at human brain 5-HT2 receptors: implications for treating LSD-induced hallucinogenesis. Psychopharmacol. 98: 495–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Samford, M.D., B.T. Larson, J.C. Forcherio, M.S. Kerley, J.T. Turner and J.A. Paterson. 1993. Characterization of the effects of endophyte-infected tall fescue consumption on changes in adrenergic and dopaminergic receptor in selected brain tissues of the bovine. J. Anim. Sci. 71:Suppl. 1, 443.Google Scholar
  283. Samford, M.D., B.T. Larson, J.M. Camden, M.S. Kerley, J.A. Paterson, E.L. Piper, A.S. Moubarak and J.T. Turner. 1994. Ergovaline activates alpha-2-adrenoceptors in HT-29 cells. J. Anim. Sci. 72 (Suppl 1): 143.Google Scholar
  284. Sanders-Bush, E. and S.E. Mayer. 1996. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor agonists and antagonists. p. 249–263. In J.G. Hardman, L.E. Limbird, P.B. Molinoff, R.W. Ruddon and A.G. Gilman (eds.). Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9’h edition. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  285. Sartin, J.L, R.J. Kemppainen, D.N. Marple, R. Carnes, G. Dieberg and E.H. Oliver. 1987. Effects of parachlorophenylalanine, quipazine and cyprohepatadine on growth hormone and adrenocorticotropin secretion in steers. Domes. Anim. Endocrinol. 4: 33–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Savola, M., J.M. Savola and J. Puurumen. 1989. Alpha-2 adrenoreceptor-mediated inhibition of gastric acid secretion by medetomidine is efficiently antagonized by atipamezole. Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. 301: 267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Schechter, L.E. and K.J. Simansky. 1988. 1-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) exerts an anorexic action that is blocked by 5-HT, antagonists in rats. Psychopharmacol. 94: 342–356.Google Scholar
  288. Schmeitzel, L.P. and C.D. Lothrop, Jr. 1990a. Sex hormones and skin disease. Vet. Med. Report 2:28–41. Schmeitzel, L.P. and C.D. Lothrop, Jr. 1990b. Hormonal abnormalities in pomeranians with normal coat and in pomeranians with growth hormone-responsive dermatosis. JAVMA 197: 1333–1341.Google Scholar
  289. Schmidt, S.P. and T.G. Osborn. 1993. Effects of endophyte-infected tall fescue on animal performance. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 44: 223–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Schran, H.F., F.L.S. Tse and S.I. Bhuta. 1983. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of bromocriptine in the rat. Biopharm. Drug Dispos. 6: 301–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Schultze, A.E., J.J. Emeis and R.A. Roth. 1996. Cellular fibronectin and von Willibrand Factor concentrations in plasma of rats treated with monocrotaline pyrrole. Biochem. Pharmacol. 51: 187–191.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Schuman, E.M. and D.V. Madison. 1994. Nitric oxide and synaptic function. Ann. Rev. Neurosci. 17: 153–183.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Schwartz, R. 1956. Alkaline phosphatase activity of the serum of kwashiorkor. J. Clin. Pathol. 9: 33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Scrivener, C.J. and W.L. Bryden. 1993. Hyperthermia in cattle grazing annual ryegrass. Proc., Sympos. on Mycotoxicoses of Grassland Farming. N.Zealand Vet. J. 41: 215.Google Scholar
  295. Seawright, A.A. 1982. Claviceps spp. Animal Health in Australia. p. 124–125. Chemical and Plant Poisons Vol 2. Australian Government Publ. Serv., Canberra.Google Scholar
  296. Seuwen, K. and J. Pouyssegur. 1990. Serotonin as a growth factor. Biochem. Pharmaco. 39: 985–990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Shelby, R.A. and L.W. Dalrymmple. 1987. Incidence and distribution of the tall fescue endophyte in the United States. Plant Disease 71: 783–786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Shelby, R.A. and S.P. Schmidt. 1991. Survival of the tall fescue endophyte in the digestive tract of cattle and horses. Plant Disease 75: 776–778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Shillo, K.K., L.S. Leshin, J.A. Boling and N. Gay. 1988. Effects of endophyte-infected fescue on concentrations of prolactin in blood sera and the anterior pituitary and concentrations of dopamine and dopamine metabolites in brains of steers. J. Anim. Sci. 66: 13–718.Google Scholar
  300. Siegel, M.R., M.C. Johnson, D.R. Varney, W.C. Nesmith, R.C. Buckner, L.P. Bush, P.B. Burrus, II, T.A. Jones and J.A. Boling. 1984. A fungal endophyte in tall fescue: Incidence and dissemination. Phytopath. 74: 932–941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Siegel, M.R., G.C.M. Latch, L.P. Busch, F.F. Fannin, D.D. Rowan, B.A. Tapper, C.W. Bacon and M.C. Johnson. 1990. Funga endophyte-infected grasses: Alkaloid accumulation and aphid response. J. Chem. Ecol. 16: 3301–3315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Siegel, M.R. and L.P. Bush. 1994. Importance of endophytes in forage grasses, a statement of problems and selection of endophytes. p. 135–150. In C.W. Bacon and J.F. White, Jr (eds.). Biotechnology of Endophytic Fungi of Grasses. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  303. Sies, H. and H. de Groot. 1992. Role of reactive oxygen species in cell toxicity. Toxicology Letters. 64/65, 547–551.Google Scholar
  304. Smith, B.L., S.A. Beetson and P.P. Embling. 1993. Ergotamine and temperature control in rats. Proc., Sympos. on Mycotoxicoses of Grassland Farming. N. Zealand Vet. J. 41: 215.Google Scholar
  305. Smith, G.S., J.B. Watkins, T.N. Thompson, K. Rozman and C.D. Klaassen. 1984. Oxidative and conjugative metabolism of xenobiotics by livers of cattle, sheep, swine and rats. J. Anim. Sci. 58: 386–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Smith, G.S. 1992. Toxification and detoxification of plant compounds by ruminants: an overview. J. Range Manage. 45: 25–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Smith, V.G., T.W Beck, E.M. Convey and H.A. Tucker. 1974. Bovine serum prolactin, growth hormone, cortisol and milk yield after ergocryptine. Neuroendocrinol. 15: 172–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Sollman, T. 1957. p. 526–537. A Manual of Pharmacology and its Applications to Therapeutics and Toxicology, 8th Ed. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa.Google Scholar
  309. Solomons, R.N., R.D. Linnabary and J.W. Oliver. 1986. Alpha-adrenoceptors in bovine dorsal pedal vein (DPV); Ergotamine response. (Abst.) 67`h Conference of Research Workers in Animal Disease, Chicago, IL. November.Google Scholar
  310. Solomons, R.N., J.W. Oliver and R.D. Linnabary. 1989. Dorsal pedal vein of cattle: Reactivity to selected alka- loids associated with Acremonium coenophialum-infected fescue grass. Am. J. Vet. Res. 50: 235–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. Sowers, J.R., A.S. Brickman, N. Asp, M.L. Tuck, K. Jasberg and S. Magnone. 1981a. Altered dopaminergic modulation of prolactin and aldosterone secretion in pseudohypoparathyroidism. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 52: 914–918.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. Sowers, J.R., A.S. Brickman, D.K. Sowers and G. Berg. 1981b. Dopaminergic modulation of aldosterone secretion in man is unaffected by glucocorticoids and angiotensin blockage. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 52: 1078–1084.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. Sowers, J.R. 1982. Modulation of corticosteroid secretion by dopaminergic mechanisms in rhesus monkeys. Am. J. Physiol. E375 - E379.Google Scholar
  314. Sowers, J.R., G. Berg, M.L. Tuck, V.I. Martin, W. Chandler and D.M. Mayes. 1982. Doperaminergic modulation of 18-hydroxycorticosterone secretion in man. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 54: 523–527.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. Spiers, D.E. and B. Snyder. Potential benefit of ivermectin in reducing hyperthermia associated with fescue toxicosis. Proc. Tall fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SERAIG-8, Nashville, TN. pg. 44, 1995a.Google Scholar
  316. Spiers, D.E., Q. Zhang, P.A. Eichen, G.E. Rottinghaus, G.B. Garner and M.R. Ellersieck. 1995b. Temperature-dependent responses of rats to ergovaline derived from endophyte-infested tall fescue. J. Anim. Sci. 73: 1954–1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. Stafford, K.J. and B.F. Leek. 1988. Dopamine-sensitive receptors that evoke rumination and modify reticulo-ruminal activity in sheep. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 11: 171–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Stamm, M.M., T. DelCurto, M.R. Homey, S.D. Brandyberry and R.K. Barton. 1994. Influence of alkaloid concentration of tall fescue straw on the nutrition, physiology, and subsequent performance of beef steers..1. Anim. Sci. 72: 1068–1075.Google Scholar
  319. Standaert, D.G. and A.B. Young. 1996. Treatment of central nervous system degenerative disorders. p. 503–519. In J.G. Hardman, L.E. Limbird, P.B. Molioff, R.W. Ruddon and A.G. Gilman (eds.). Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  320. Stearns, T.J. 1953. Fescue foot or ergot-like disease in cattle in Kentucky. JAVMA 388–389 May.Google Scholar
  321. Steen, W.W., N. Gay, J.A. Boling, R.C. Buckner, L.P. Bush and G. Lacefield. 1979. Evaluation of Kentucky 31, GI-306, G1–307 and Kenby tall fescue as pasture for yearling steers. Il. Growth, physiological response and plasma constituents of yearling steers. J. Anim. Sci. 48: 618–623.Google Scholar
  322. Stern, D.M., C. Esposito, H. Gerlach, M. Gerlach, J. Ryan, D. Handley and P. Nawroth. 1991. Endothelium and regulation of coagulation. Diabetes Care 14: 160–166.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. Stick, J.A., W.A. Arden, R.A. Robinson, E.M. Shobe and R.A. Roth. 1992. Thromboxane and prostacyclin production in ponies with colonic volvulus. Am. J. Vet. Res. 53: 563–568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. Stidham, W.D., C.J. Brown, L.B. Daniels, D.J. Bolt, T.S. Nelson, E.L. Piper and K.F. Harrison. 1982. Serum prolactin of cows and calves grazing cool season grasses. Nutr. Rep. Int. 26: 895–900.Google Scholar
  325. Stiles, G.L., M.G. Caron and R.J. Lefkowitz. 1984. B-adrenergic receptors: biochemical mechanisms of physiological regulation. Physiol. Rev. 64:661-743.Google Scholar
  326. Stoszek, M.J., J.E. Oldfield, G.e. Carter and P.H. Weswig. 1979. Effect of tall fescue and quackgrass on copper metabolism and weight gains of beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 48: 893–899.Google Scholar
  327. Strandhoy, J.W., M. Moris and V.M. Buckalew, Jr. 1982. Renal effects of the antihypertensive, guanabenz, in the dog. J. Pharmacol. Exper. Therap. 221: 347–352.Google Scholar
  328. Strickland, J.R., D.L. Cross, L.W. Grimes and G.P. Birrenkott. 1991. The effect of selected alkaloids and dopamine antagonists on in vitro pituitary prolactin secretion. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SRIEG37, Atlanta, GA. p. 80–83. Nov. 11–13.Google Scholar
  329. Strickland, J.R., D.L. Cross, T.C. Jenkins, R.J. Petroski and R.G. Powell. 1992. The effect of alkaloids and seed extracts of endophyte infected tall fescue on prolactin secretion in an in vitro perfusion system. J. Anim. Sci. 70: 2779–2786.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. Strickland, J.R., J.W. Oliver and D.L. Cross. 1993. Fescue toxicosis and its impact on animal agriculture. Vet. Human Tox. 35: 454–464.Google Scholar
  331. Strickland, J.R., J.W. Oliver, E.M. Bailey and L.K. Abney. 1994a. Mitogenic effects of tall fescue toxins (alkaloids) on vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SERAIEG-8, Atlanta, GA. Oct. 23–25. p. 55–57.Google Scholar
  332. Strickland, J.R., J.W. Oliver, E.M. Bailey and L.K. Abney. 1994b. Tall fescue toxin (alkaloids) effects on endothelin production from bovine endothelial cells in vitro. Proc. Tall Fescue Toxicosis Workshop, SERAIEG-8, Atlanta, GA. Oct. 23–25. p. 58–59.Google Scholar
  333. Strickland, J.R., D.L. Cross, G.P. Birrenkott and L.W. Grimes. 1994c. Effect of ergovaline, loline,and dopamine antagonists on rat pituitary cell prolactin release in vitro. Am. J. Vet. Res. 55: 716–721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. Strickland, J.R., E.M. Bailey, L.K. Abney and J.W. Oliver. 1994d. Effect of ergot alkaloids on bovine endothelial cells in vitro. Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  335. Strickland, J.R. 1996a. Endothelin response to tall fescue alkaloid stimulus of bovine endothelial cells. USDA report.Google Scholar
  336. Strickland, J.R., E.M. Bailey, L.K. Abney and J.W. Oliver. I996b. Assessment of the mitogenic potential of the alkaloids produced by endophyte Acremonium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) on bovine vascular smooth muscle in vitro. J. Anim. Sci. 74: 1664–1671Google Scholar
  337. Stuedemann, J.A., T.S. Rumsey, J. Bond, S.R. Wilkerson, L.P. Bush, D.J. Williams and A.B. Caudle. 1985. Association of blood cholesterol with occurrence of fat necrosis in cows and tall fescue summer toxicosis in steers. Am. J. Vet Res. 46: 1990–1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. Stuedemann, J.A. and C.S. Hoveland. 1988. Fescue endophyte: History and impact on animal agriculture. J. Prod. Agric. 1: 39–44.Google Scholar
  339. Stuedemann, J.A. and F.N. Thompson. 1993. Management strategies and potential opportunities to reduce the effects of endophyte-infested tall fescue on animal performance. Toxicoses in Animals and Management Strategies to Reduce the Effects of Endophyte Toxins. p. 1–12. In D.E. Hume, G.C.M. Latch and H.S. Easton (eds.). Proc. 2 d Internat. Sympos. on Acremonium/Grass Interactions. Ag. Research, Grasslands Research Center, Palmerston North, NZ.Google Scholar
  340. Sutton, D. and B.J. Preston. 1970. Arteriography in peripheral ischemia due to ergotism. Brit. J. Radiol. 43: 776–780.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. Swick, R.A. 1984. Hepatic metabolism and bioactivation of mycotoxins and plant toxins. J. Anim. Sci. 58: 1017–1028.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. Symmonds, H.W. and C.B. Mallinson. 1978. The effect of xylazine and xylazine followed by insulin on blood glucose and insulin in the dairy cow. Vet. Red. 102: 27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Thompson, F.N., J.A. Stuedemann, J.L. Sartin, D.P. Belesky and O.J. Devine. 1987. Selected hormonal changes with summer fescue toxicosis. J. Anim. Sci. 65: 727–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. Thompson, F.N. and J.A. Stuedemann. 1993. Pathophysiology of fescue toxicosis. p. 263–281. In R. Joost and S. Quisenberry (eds.). Acremonium/Grass Interactions. Elsevier, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  345. Thompson, F.N. and G.B. Garner. 1994. Vaccines and pharmacological agents to alleviate fescue toxicosis. p. 125–131. In C.W. Bacon and J.F. White, Jr. (Eds.). Biotechnology of Endophytic Fungi of Grasses. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  346. Thompson, W.S., W.W. McClure and M. Landowne. 1950. Prolonged vasoconstriction due to ergotamine tartrate. Archiv. Intern. Med. 85: 691–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. Thurmon, J.C., D.R. Nelson, S.M. Hartsfield and C.A. Rumore. 1978. Effects of xylazine hydrochloride on urine in cattle. Aust. Vet. J. 54: 178–180.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. Titeler, M., R.A. Lyon, K.H. Davis and R.A. Glennon. 1987. Selectivity of serotonergic drugs for multiple brain serotonin receptors. Biochem. Pharmacol. 36: 3265–3271.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. Titeler, M., R.A. Lyon and R.A. Glennon. 1988. Radioligand binding evidence implicates the brain 5-HT2 receptor as a site of action for LSD and phenylisopropylamine hallucinogens. Psychopharmacol. 94: 213–216.Google Scholar
  350. Tolley, E.A., M.A. Brown and D.F. Nutting. 1990. Gender and breed differences in serum cholesterol of young cattle grazing fescue and Bermuda pastures. p. 282–285. In S.S. Quisenberry and R.E. Joost (Eds). Proc. Internat. Sympos. Acremonium/Grass Interactions. New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  351. Taouis, M., M. Berlan, P. Montastruc and M. Lafontan. 1988. Mechanism of the lipid-mobilizing effect of alpha-2 adrenergic antagonists in the dog. J. Pharmacol. Exper. Therap. 247: 1172–1180.Google Scholar
  352. Towers, N.R. 1993. Control of mycotoxicosis of New Zealand grasslands. N. Zealand Vet. J. 41: 212.Google Scholar
  353. Tvrdeic, A. and D. Pericic. 1991. Dihydrogenated ergot compounds bind with high affinity to GABAa receptor-associated Cl-ionophore. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 202: 109 - I11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. Valet, P., M. Taouis, M.A. Tran, P. Montastruc, M. Lafontan and M. Berlan. 1989. Lipomobilizing effects of procaterol and yohibine in the conscious dog: comparison of endocrinological, metabolic and cardiovascular effects. Br. J. Pharmacol. 97: 229–239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. Van Miert, A.S.J.P.A.M., C.T.M. Van Duin and S.M. Anika. 1986. Anorexia during febrile conditions in dwarf goats. The effect of diazepam, flurbiprofen and naloxone. The Vet Quart. 8: 266–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. Van Miert, A.S.J.P.A.M., M. Koot and C.T.M. Van Duin. 1989. Appetite-modulating drugs in dwarf goats, with special emphasis on benzodizepine-induced hyperphagia and its antagonism by flumazenil and R15–3505. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 12: 147–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. Van Miert, A.S.J.P.A.M. and C.T.M. Van Duin. 1991. Feed intake and rumen motility in dwarf goats. Effects of some alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, prostaglandins and posterior pituitary hormones. Vet. Res. Commun. 15: 57–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. Van Neuten, J.M., P.A.J. Janssen, W. DeRidder and P.M. Vanhoutte. 1982. Interaction between 5-hydroxytryptamine and other vasoconstrictor substances in the isolated femoral artery of the rabbit; effect of ketanserin (R 41 468). Europ. J. Pharmacol. 77: 281–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. Van Rensburg, S.J. and B. Altenkirk. 1974. p. 69–96. In I. F.H. Purchase (ed.). Mycotoxins. Elsevier Sci. Publ. Co., New York.Google Scholar
  360. Vanhoutte, P.M. and T.F. Luscher. 1986. Serotonin and the blood vessel wall. J. Hypertens. 4: 529–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. Vanhoutte, P.M., A. Amery, W. Birkenhager, A. Breckenridge, F. Buhler, A. Distler, J. Dormandy, A. Doyle, E. Frohlich, L. Hansson, T. Hedner, N. Hollenberg, H.E. Jensen, P.L. Johansen, P. Meyer, L. Opie, 1. Robertson, M. Safar, M. Schalckamp, J. Symoens, J.T. Jensen and A. Zanchotti. 1988. Serotonergic mechanisms in hypertension: Focus on the effects of ketanserin. Hypertens. 11: 111–133.Google Scholar
  362. Verbeuren, T.J., F.H. Jordaens, H. Bult and A.G. Herman. 1988. The endothelium inhibits the penetration of serotonin and norepinephrine in the isolated canine saphenous vein. J. Pharmacol. Exper. Therapy. 244: 276–282.Google Scholar
  363. Von Moltke, L.L., D.J. Greenblatt, M.M. Cotreau-Bibbo, S.X. Duan, J.S. Harmatz and R.I. Shader. 1994. Inhibition of desipramine hydroxylation in vitro by serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor antidepressants, and by quinidine and ketoconazole: A model system to predict drug interactions in vivo. J. Pharmacol. Exper. Therap. 268: 1278–1283.Google Scholar
  364. Wallner, B.M., N.H. Booth, J.D. Robbins, C.W. Bacon, J.K. Porter, T.E. Kiser, R.W. Wilson and B. Johnson. 1983. Effect of an endophytic fungus isolated from toxic pasture grass on serum prolactin concentrations in the lactating cow. Am. J. Vet Res. 44: 1317–1322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. Ware, J.A. and D.D. Heistad. 1993. Platelet-endothelium interactions. N. Engl. J. Med. 328: 628–635.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. Watson, D.F., J.R. Rooney, Il and W.G. Hoag. 1957. Fescue foot lameness in cattle - some observations on the disease in Virginia. JAVMA 217–219 March.Google Scholar
  367. Welty, R.E., A.M. Craig and M.D. Azevedo. 1994. Variability of ergovaline in seeds and straw and endophyte infection in seeds among endophyte-infected genotypes of tall fescue. Plant Disease 78: 845–849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. Westendorf, M.L., G.E. Mitchell, Jr., R.E. Tucker, L.P. Bush, R.J. Petroski and R.G. Powell. 1993. In vitro and in vivo ruminal and physiological responses to endophyte-infected tall fescue. J. Dairy Sci. 76: 555–563.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. Whitfield, L., J.R. Sowers, M.L. Tuck and M.S. Golub. 1980. Dopaminergic control of plasma catecholamine and aldosterone responses to acute stimuli in normal man. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 51: 724–729.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. Williams, D.J., D.W. Tyler and E. Papp. 1969. Abdominal fat necrosis as a herd problem in Georgia cattle. JAVMA 154: 1017–1021.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  371. Williams, M., S.R. Shaffer, G.B. Garner, S.G. Yates, H.L. Tookey, L.D. Kintner, S.L. Nelson and J.T. McGinity. 1975. Induction of fescue foot syndrome in cattle by fractionated extracts of toxic fescue hay. Am. J. Vet. Res. 36: 1353–1357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. Woods, A.J., J.B. Jones and P.G. Mantle. 1966. An outbreak of gangrenous ergotism in cattle. Vet. Res. 78: 742–749.Google Scholar
  373. Yanai, R. and H. Nagasawa. 1974. Effect of 2-Br-alpha-ergocryptine on pituitary synthesis and release of prolactin and growth hormone in rats. Norm. Res. 5: 105.Google Scholar
  374. Yater, W.M. and J.A. Cahill. 1936. Bilateral gangrene of feet due to ergotamine tartrate used for pruiritis of jaundice: report of a case studied arteriographically and pathologically. JAMA 106: 1625–1631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. Yates, S.G. 1962. Toxicity of tall fescue forage: A review. Econ. Bot. 16: 295–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. Yates, S.G. and R.G. Powell. 1988. Analysis of ergopeptine alkaloids in endophyte-infected tall fescue. J. Agric. Food Chem. 36: 337–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. Yokotani, K., Y. Okuma, K. Nakamura and Y. Osumi. 1993a. Release of endogenous acetylcholine from a vascularly perfused rat stomach in vitro; inhibition by M3 muscarinic autoreceptors and alpha-2 adrenoreceptors. J. Pharmacol. Exper. Therap. 266: 1190–1195.Google Scholar
  378. Yokotoni, K. and Y. Osumi. 1993b. Chonlinergic M2 muscarinic receptor-mediated inhibition of endogenous noradrenaline release from the isolated vascularly perfused rat stomach. J. Pharmacol. Exper. Therap. 264: 54–60.Google Scholar
  379. Zanzalari, K.P., R.N. Heitmann, J.B. McLaren and H.A. Fribourg. 1989. Effects of endophyte-infected fescue and cymetidine on respiration rates, rectal temperatures and hepatic mixed function oxidaase activity as measured by hepatic antipyrine metabolism in sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 67: 3370–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  380. Zhang, Q., D.E. Spiers, G.E. Rottinghaus and G.B. Garner. 1994. Thermoregulatory effects of ergovaline isolated from endophyte infected tall fescue seed on rats. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 954–958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. Zink, M.H., Ill, P.E. Pergola, J.F. Doane, A.F. Sved and R.H. Alper. 1990. Quipazine increases renin release by a peripheral hemodynamic mechanism. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 15: 1–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jack W. Oliver
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Comparative Medicine College of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations