Loschmidt’s Graphic Formulae of 1861

Forerunners of Modern Structural Formulae
  • Alfred Bader


I first became aware of the work of Josef Loschmidt through a letter (Fig. 1) that my old friend, William Wiswesser, sent to Linus Pauling in 1987. He described in a wonderfully clear manner what Loschmidt had published in 1861 in a privately printed book, Chemische Studien 1. Bill sent me a copy of this letter and included Loschmidt’s fold-out plates, which Bill had hand-colored.


Benzyl Alcohol Tartaric Acid Cinnamic Acid Fumaric Acid Triple Bond 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    J. Loschmidt, Chemische Studien, Carl Gerold’s Sohn, Wien, 1861. Reprinted by the Aldrich Chemical Company, Milwaukee, WI, Cat. No. Z-l 8576-0, 1989.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    W.J. Wiswesser, Johann Josef Loschmidt (1821–1895): a forgotten genius. Benzene rings and much more in 1861, Aldrichimica Acta 22 (1), 17 (1989).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ref. 1, p. 49. “...einen tieferen Einblick in die Constitution der Materie zu gewähren.”.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. Anschütz (Editor), Konstitutions-Formeln der organischen Chemie in graphischer Darstellung by J. Loschmidt, Ostwalds Klassiker der Exakten Wissenschaften No 190, Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, 1913. Reprinted by the Aldrich Chemical Co., Milwaukee, WI, Cat. No. Z-18577-9, 1989.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    F.W. Lichtenthaler, Emil Fischer’s Proof of the Configuration of Sugars: A Centennial Tribute, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 31, 1541 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ref. 4, p. 119, footnote 63.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    ibid, p. 120, footnote 72.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A.S. Couper, Sur une nouvelle théorie chimique, Ann. Chim. Phys. [3] 53, 489 (1858).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ref. 4, p. 127.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    ibid, pp. 116-117, footnote 460.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    ibid, p. 152, footnote 199.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. Anschütz, August Kekulé, Verlag Chemie, Berlin, 1929, Vol. 1, p. 305.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    R. Anschütz, Life and Chemical Work of Archibald Scott Couper, Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh XXIX [IV], 218 (1909).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Kekulé, Lehrbuch der organischen Chemie, Ferdinand Enke, Erlangen, 1861, p. 157.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ref. 1, pp. 14-15; ref. 4, p. 28.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ref. 12, p. 304.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A.J. Rocke, Waking up to the facts?, Chem. Br. 1993, 401.Google Scholar
  18. 18.(a)
    G.P. Schiemenz, Goodbye, Kekulé? Joseph Loschmidt und die monocyclische Struktur des Benzols, Naturwiss. Rundsch. 46, 85 (1993).Google Scholar
  19. (b).
    G.P. Schiemenz, Joseph Loschmidt und die Benzol-Formel. Über die Entstehung einer Legende, Sudhoffs Arch. 78, 41 (1994).Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    G.P. Schiemenz, Further out of the shadow, Chem. Ind. (London) 14, 522 (1993).Google Scholar
  21. 20.
    Personal communication.Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    Ref. 1, p. 30; ref.4, p. 58.Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    Ref. 18(b), p. 57, footnote 120.Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    Ref. 1, p.8,; ref.4, p. 16.Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    Ref. 12, Vol. I, pp. 308-309.Google Scholar
  26. 25.
    G.P. Schiemenz, Where Did Kekulé Find ‘His’ Benzene Formula? (Ch. 9) in The Kekulé Riddle, J.H. Wotiz, Editor, Cache River Press, Vienna, IL, 1993, p. 116.Google Scholar
  27. 26.
    Ref. l, p.49.Google Scholar
  28. 27.
    Ref. 25, p. 253.Google Scholar
  29. 28.
    K. Hafner, August Kekulé, dem Baumeister der Chemie zum 150 Geburtstag (Darmstädter Schriften), Justus von Liebig Verlag, Darmstadt, 1980, p. 76.Google Scholar
  30. 29.
    F. Kirchhof, Joseph Loschmidt und die Benzolformel, Chem. Appar. 91 (2), 48 (1967).Google Scholar
  31. 30.
    Ref. 18(b), pp. 42-43.Google Scholar
  32. 31.
    H. Kopp, Liebig’s Jahresbericht 1, 335 (1861).Google Scholar
  33. 32.
    L. Boltzmann, Zur Erinnerung an Josef Loschmidt vom Executiv-Comité zur Errichtung eines Loschmidt-Denkmales, im Selbstverlag des Comités, Wien, 1899, pp. 3-4. Reprinted in Gedenkrede auf J. Loschmidt, Populäre Schriften, Barth, Leipzig, 1905.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alfred Bader
    • 1
  1. 1.MilwaukeeUSA

Personalised recommendations