Coping with Environmental Uncertainty by Social Learning

The Case of Agricultural Biotechnology Regulation in Europe
  • Susan Carr
  • Les Levidow


The safety regulation of agricultural biotechnology has proved difficult for European harmonisation. Under the Deliberate Release Directive, EEC 90/220, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) must undergo a Europe-wide procedure to obtain market approval. Applications for approval have led to lengthy disputes, which have revealed strong differences among member states despite the supposedly common regulatory framework.


Member State Social Learning Competent Authority Environmental Uncertainty Agricultural Biotechnology 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan Carr
    • 1
  • Les Levidow
    • 1
  1. 1.Systems Department, Faculty of TechnologyThe Open UniversityMilton KeynesUK

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