Naive realists suppose that the world presents as it is, carved up into items and properties completely independent of human-kind. The problem with this is that many of the apparent properties—like that of being a pendulum, for instance—have a highly theoretical and intellectual content provided by humans. In contrast, naive idealists suppose that we individually or collectively, perhaps with the help of a God or Gods, construct the external world out of our ideas or perceptions. The problem here lies with there being too much of an intellectual contribution from us (or the Gods). We simply cannot wish things into existence, nor give them, by mere desire, the properties that we would like. We are just part of the natural world, not the creators of it.
KeywordsEmergent Property Soft System Methodologist Theoretical Entity Macro Property System Exist
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