Surfactant Mediated Heteroepitaxy: Interplay of Diffusion, Strain Relief, and Surface Morphology

  • Michael Horn von Hoegen
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 360)


The use of surfactants during growth of Ge on Si(001) prevents the formation of 3D-clusters and allows the deposition of continuous and smooth Ge films. Howewver, this is not valid for the regime of strained film growth prior to the generation of misfit relieving defects. The pseudomorphic grown Ge film exhibits a pronounced roughness on a 10nm scale; This allows the Ge atoms to relieve lattice misfit related strain by partial lateral relaxation towards their bulk lattice constant. This strain relief mechanism is not possible for a flat and continuous film.

At 700°C 8 monolayers of Ge on Si(001) using Sb as surfactant form strained islands with a size of ~300Å, which cover uniformly the whole surface. The island morphology depends strongly on the Sb coverage and changes from islands with [117]-facets at high Sb coverage via round, flat cones with an inclination angle of 12°C to islands rotated by 45°C with [105]-facets formed during growth at low Sb coverage. The equilibrium conditions are verified by the reversible transition from [117]-facets to 12°C-cones initiated by a change of the surfactant coverage.


Surface Free Energy Dangling Bond Type Facet Strain Relief LEED Pattern 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Horn von Hoegen
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für FestkörperphysikUniversität HannoverHannoverGermany

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