Social Systems in the Context of Ecological Fields

  • Frederick L. Bates
Part of the Contemporary Systems Thinking book series (CST)


The previous chapter presented a cognitive system through which an observer can build mental models of ecological fields. This discussion purposely avoided a detailed examination of social systems and their relationship to each other in the context of the environments they inhabit. As a matter of fact, that discussion “sidestepped” the issue of how social systems in contrast to individual organisms are viewed as elements in ecological fields and concentrated on simplified biological examples to illustrate concepts. This was done to allow ecological fields to be defined in the most general terms, without the discussion becoming mired down in details that pertain to the various forms that systems take.


Social System Speed Limit Human System Ecological Network Textile Mill 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederick L. Bates
    • 1
  1. 1.The University of GeorgiaAthensGeorgia

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