Semibatch Crystallizer

  • Narayan S. Tavare
Part of the The Springer Chemical Engineering Series book series (PCES)


Semibatch crystallizers are widely used in the chemical industry for the manufacture of many chemicals in a variety of operating modes. Similar to batch crystallizers, they are generally useful in small-scale operations as they are simple, flexible, require less investment, and generally involve less process development. As well as being an important mode of operation, semibatch operation may result from the dynamic conditions that arise either involuntarily imposed, as in start-up or shut-down periods for continuous crystallizers, or voluntarily imposed, to achieve the desired crystallizer behavior. In addition to their flexibility and ease of operation, semibatch operations reduce the severity of the heat effects, prevent the formation of undesired by-products, and/or improve the quality and yield of the desired product in a process sequence. These are some of the advantages that may be exploited from a variety of semibatch operations.


Nucleation Rate Crystal Volume Crystal Size Distribution Nucleation Kinetic Population Balance Equation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Al-Khayat, A., Reaction Crystallization of Salicylic Acid, M Sc thesis, Victoria University of Manchester, Manchester (1988).Google Scholar
  2. Aslund, A. and Rasmuson, A. C, Reaction Crystallization of Benzoic Acid, Report submitted to the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (1986).Google Scholar
  3. Aslund, B., and Rasmuson, A. C, “Crystal size distribution control in semibatch reaction crystallization,” in Mersmann, A. (Ed.), Industrial Crystallization’90, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, 17–22(1990).Google Scholar
  4. Aslund, A. and Rasmuson, A. C, “Semibatch reaction crystallization of benzoic acid,” AIChE J. 38, 328–342(1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balasubramanian, D. J., Srinivas, V., Gaikar, V. G. and Sharma, M. M., “Aggregation behaviour of hydrotrope compounds in aqueous solution,”J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3865–3871 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baldyga, J., Pohorecki, R., Podgorska, W. and Marcant, B., “Micromixing effects in semibatch precipitation,” in Mersmann, A. (Ed.), Industrial Crystallization’90, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, 175–180(1990).Google Scholar
  7. Bhatia, S. K. and Chakraborty, D., “Modified MWR approach: Application to agglomerative precipitation,” AIChE J. 38, 868–878 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brakalov, L. B., “On the mechanism of magnesium hydroxide ripening,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 40, 305–312(1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen, W., Fisher, R. R. and Berg, J. R., “Simulation of particle size distribution in an aggregation — breakup process,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 45, 3003–3006 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. David, R., Marchai, P., Villermaux, J. and Klein, J. P., “Crystallization and precipitation engineering-III. A discrete formulation of the agglomeration rate of crystals in a crystallization process,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 46, 205–213 (1991a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. David, R., Villermaux, J., Marchai, P. and Klein, J. P., “Crystallization and precipitation engineering-IV. Kinetic model of adipic acid crystallization,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 46,1129–1136 (1991b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dirksen, J. A. and Ring, T. A., “Fundamentals of crystallization kinetic effects on particle size distributions and morphology,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 46, 2389–2477 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Delpech de Saint Guilhem, X., and Ring, T. A., “Exact solution for the population in a continuous stirred tank crystallizer with agglomeration,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 42, 1247–1249 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Drake, R. L., “A General mathematical survey of the coagulation equation,” in Hidy, G. M. and Brock, J. R.(Eds.), Topics in Current Aerosol Research, Part 2, Pergamon Press, New York (1972).Google Scholar
  15. Dunning, W. J., “Ripening and aging processes in precipitates,” in Smith, L.(Ed.), Particle Growth in Suspensions, SCI Monograph, 38, 3-28 (1973).Google Scholar
  16. Franck, R., David, R., Villermaux, J. and Klein, J. P., “Crystallization and precipitation engineering — II. A chemical reaction engineering approach to salicylic acid precipitation: Modelling of batch kinetics and application to continuous operation,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 43, 69–77 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Guggenheim, E. A., Thermodynamique, Dunod, Paris (1965).Google Scholar
  18. Hanitzsch, E. and Kahlweit, M., “Aging of precipitates,” in Industrial Crystallization, Institute of Chemical Engineers, London, 130–141 (1969).Google Scholar
  19. Hartel, R. W., Gottung, B. E., Randolph, A. D. and Drach, G. W., “Mechanisms and kinetic modeling of calcium oxalate crystal aggregation in a urinelike liquor. Part I: Mechanisms,” AIChE J. 32, 1176–1185(1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hartel, R. W., and Randolph, A. D., “Mechanisms and kinetic modeling of calcium oxalate crystal aggregation in a urinelike liquor. Part II: Kinetic modeling,” AIChE J. 32, 1186–1195 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Higashitani, K., Yamauchi, K., Matsumo, Y. and Hosokawa, G., ‘Turbulent coagulation of particles dispersed in a viscous fluid,” J-Chem. Eng. Jpn. 16, 299–304 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hostomsky, J. and Jones, A. G., “Calcium carbonate crystallization, agglomeration and form during continuous precipitation from solution,” J. Phys., D: Appli. Phys. 24, 165–170 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hounslow, M. J., Ryall, R. L. and Marshall, V. R., “A discretized population balance for nucleation, growth and aggregation,” AIChE J. 34, 1821–1832 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hounslow, M. J., “A discretized population balance for continuous systems at steady state,” AIChE J. 36, 106–116 (1990a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hounslow, M. J., “Nucleation, growth and aggregation rates from steady state experimental data,” AIChEJ. 36,1748–1751 (1990b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hulburt, H. M. and Katz, S. “Some problems in particle technology: A statistical mechanical formulation,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 19, 555–574 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Her, R. K., The Chemistry of Silica, Wiley, New York (1979).Google Scholar
  28. Kahlweit, M., “Ostwald ripening of precipitates,” Adv. Colloid. Interface Sci. 5, 1–35 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kuboi, R., Harada, M., Winterbottom, J. M., Anderson, A. J. S. and Nienow, A. W, “Mixing effects in double-jet and single-jet precipitation,” in World Congress III of Chemical Engineering, Tokyo, Vol. 2, 8g-302,1040–1043 (1986).Google Scholar
  30. Landolt-Bornstein, Zahlenwerte und Funktionen aus Physik, Chemie, Astronomie, Geophysisik and Technik, 6 sufl, Band II, Teill 7, Flektnsche Eignhaften II, Springer, Berlin (1960).Google Scholar
  31. Lamey, M.D. and Ring, T. A., “The effects of agglomeration in a continuous stirred tank crystallizer,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 41, 1213–1219 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Levenspiel, O., Chemical Reaction Engineering, 2nd ed., Wiley, New York (1972).Google Scholar
  33. Liao, P. F. and Hulburt, H. M., “Agglomeration processes in suspension crystallization,” Annual Meeting of American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Chicago, December (1976).Google Scholar
  34. Lui, R. Y. M. and Thompson, R. W., “Analysis of a continuous crystallizer with agglomeration,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 47, 1897–1901 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Marcant, B. and David, R., “Experimental evidence for and prediction of micromixing effects in precipitation,” AIChE J. 37, 1698–1710(1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Marchai, P., David, R., Klein, J. P. and Villermaux, J., “Crystallization and precipitation engineering—I. An efficient method for solving population balance in crystallization with agglomeration,” Chem. Eng Sci. 43, 59–67 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Masy, J. C, and Cournil, M., “Using a turbidimetric method to study the kinetics of agglomeration of potassium sulphate in a liquid medium,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 46, 693–701 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Matz, G., “Crystallization processes,” in Jancic, S. J. and de Jong, E. J. (Eds.), Industrial Crystallization 84, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 103–110 (1984).Google Scholar
  39. Matz, G., “Ostwald ripening — a modern concept,” Ger. Chem. Eng. 8, 255–265 (1985).Google Scholar
  40. McKee, R. H., “Use of hydrotrope solutions in industry,” Ind. Eng. Chem. 38, 382–384 (1946).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mukhopadhyay, S. C. and Epstein, M. A. F., “Computer model for crystal size distribution control in a semibatch evaporative crystallizer,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev. 19, 352–358 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nore, P.-H. and Mersmann, A., “Batch precipitation of barium carbonate,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 48, 3083–3088 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Przybycien, T. M. and Bailey, J. E., “Aggregation kinetics in salt induced protein precipitation,” AIChEJ. 35, 1779–1790 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Robinson, R. A. and Stokes, R. H., Electrolytic Solutions, Butterworth, London (1955).Google Scholar
  45. Saleh, A. M., Badwan, A. A., El-Khordagui, L. K. and Khalil, S. A., “The solubility of benzodiazepines in sodium salicylate solution and proposed mechanism for hydrotropic solubilization,” Int. J. Pharma. 13, 67–74 (1983a).Google Scholar
  46. Saleh, A. M., Badwan, A. A. and El-Khordagui, L. K., “A study of hydrotropic salts, cyclohexanol and water systems,” Int. J. Pharma. 17, 115–119 (1983b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sohnel, O., Mullin, J. W. and Jones, A. G., “Crystallization and agglomeration kinetics in the batch precipitation of strontium molybdate,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 28, 1725–1730 (1988).Google Scholar
  48. Sugimoto, T., “General kinetics of Ostwald ripening of precipitates,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 63, 16–26(1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tavare, N. S., “Mixing in continuous crystallizers,” AIChE J. 32, 705–732 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tavare, N. S., “Simulation of Ostwald ripening in a reactive batch crystallizer,” AIChE J. 33,152–156 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tavare, N. S. and Gaikar, V. G., “Precipitation of salicylic acid: hydrotropy and reaction,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 30, 722–728 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tavare, N. S. and Garside, J., “Simultaneous estimation of crystal nucleation and growth kinetics from batch experiments,” Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 64, 109–118 (1986).Google Scholar
  53. Tavare, N. S. and Garside, J., “Reactive precipitation in a semibatch crystallizer,” in Kulkarni, B. D., Mashelkar, R. A. and Sharma, M. M.(Eds.), Recent Trends in Chemical Reaction Engineering, Vol. 2, Wiley Eastern, New Delhi, 272–281 (1987).Google Scholar
  54. Tavare, N. S. and Garside, J. “Simulation of reactive precipitation in a semibatch crystallizer,” Trans. I. Chem. E. 68A, 115–122 (1990).Google Scholar
  55. Tavare, N. S. and Garside, J., “Silica precipitation in a semibatch crystallizer,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 48, 475–488(1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tavare, N. S. and Patwardhan, A. V., “Agglomeration in a continuous MSMPR crystallizer,” AIChE J. 38, 377–384 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tavare, N. S., Shah, M. B. and Garside, J., “Crystallization and agglomeration kinetics of nickel ammonium sulphate in an MSMPR crystallizer,” Powder Technology 44, 13–18 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tosun, G., “An experimental study of the effect of mixing on the particle size distribution in BaSCO4 precipitation reaction,” in Euro. Conf. on Mixing, Pravia, BHRA, 161–170 (1988).Google Scholar
  59. Tovstiga, G. and Wirges, H.-P., “The effect of mixing intensity on precipitation in a stirred tank reactor,” in Mersmann, A. (Ed.), Industrial Crystallization’ 90, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, 169–174(1990).Google Scholar
  60. Wachi, S. and Jones, A. G., “Dynamic modelling of particle size distribution and degree of agglomeration during precipitation,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 47, 3145–3148 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wey, J. S. and Strong, R. W., “Influence of the Gibbs-Thomson effect on the growth behaviour of AgBr crystals,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 21, 248–252 (1977).Google Scholar
  62. Zumstein, R. C, and Rousseau, R. W., “Agglomeration of copper sulphate pentahydrate crystals within well-mixed crystallizers,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 44, 2149–2155 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Narayan S. Tavare
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST)ManchesterUK

Personalised recommendations