Intracellular Signalling in Glutamate Excitotoxicity

  • Ian J. Reynolds
  • Kari R. Hoyt
  • R. James White
  • Amy K. Stout
Part of the GWUMC Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Annual Spring Symposia book series (GWUN)


The excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate is a potent and effective neurotoxin. When applied in vitro, a. brief exposure to a moderate concentration of glutamate is sufficient to kill neurons.1,2 In vivo, glutamate-induced neuronal injury probably contributes to damage that results from cerebrovascular accidents and trauma.2–4 A number of important studies have characterized the temporal and pharmacological characteristics of glutamate excitotoxicity in vitro.5–6 It is now clear that glutamate-induced activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors for about 5 minutes is sufficient to kill neurons, and that death is expressed within 24 hours of glutamate application. Activation of non-NMDA receptors by, for example, kainate requires exposures of more than 30 minutes; death ensues over a similar time frame.


NMDA Receptor Neuronal Injury NMDA Receptor Activation Glutamate Excitotoxicity Glutamate Neurotoxicity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian J. Reynolds
    • 1
  • Kari R. Hoyt
    • 1
  • R. James White
    • 1
  • Amy K. Stout
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

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