Two Pathways Between the Cortex and the Basal Ganglia Output Nuclei and the Globus Pallidus

  • Hitoshi Kita
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 47)


Two major pathways connect the cerebral cortex to the basal ganglia output nuclei: the entopeduncular nucleus (EP, homologous to the internal segment of the pallidum of the primate); and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr)(Fig. 1). The output nuclei are referred to as EP/SNr in this paper. One pathway begins with cortico-striatal projections and the other begins with cortico-subthalamic projections. Both the neostriatum and the subthalamic nucleus project heavily to the globus pallidus (GP). This paper summarizes some recent anatomical and physiological findings on the two cortico-EP/SNr pathways and the GP which is located in the middle of the two sets of pathways.


Basal Ganglion Globus Pallidus Projection Neuron Subthalamic Nucleus Axon Collateral 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hitoshi Kita
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of MedicineUniversity of Tennessee, MemphisMemphisUSA

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