The Basal Ganglia-Thalamo-Cortical Connections with Special Reference to Output Neuronal Distributions in Macaque Monkeys

  • Katsuma Nakano
  • Tetsuro Kayahara
  • Hiroshi Ushiro
  • Hirofumi Kuwabara
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 47)


The thalamic subdivisions that receive basal ganglia inputs gain access to wide regions of the frontal lobe. Five parallel basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops have been identified (Alexander et al., 1986). The individual output channels in the medial pallidal segment (GPm) are concerned with different aspects of behavior. Recently, the motor related cortical areas such as cingulate motor area, supplementary motor area (SMA) and premotor area, have been divided into several subareas morphologically and functionally. The striatum, especially the ventral striatum, is also heterogeneous, both neurochemically and functionally. Much attention has been given to the concept of parallel processing of information through the functionally distinct multiple channels, instead of the classical concept of a general funneling of cortical inputs from widespread cortical areas.


Motor Area Supplementary Motor Area Macaque Monkey Premotor Area Mesial Area 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katsuma Nakano
    • 1
  • Tetsuro Kayahara
    • 1
  • Hiroshi Ushiro
    • 1
  • Hirofumi Kuwabara
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anatomy, Faculty of MedicineMie UniversityTsu, Mie 514Japan

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