Biological Activities of HIV-Specific Peptides

  • Stanley A. Schwartz
  • Madhavan P. N. Nair
  • Linda B. Ludwig

Abstract

Infection with different viruses may produce immunologic dysfunctions in the host ranging from immunodeficiency states to autoimmune disorders. Generally it was assumed that these actions were related to the direct effects, including infection, of whole virions on target cells. These concepts became more sharply focused with the identification of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and the recognition that it can infect a critical cell involved in the regulation of the immune response of humans, namely, the CD4+ T lymphocyte. Earlier studies focused on the direct infection of CD4+ cells by HIV-1 as the primary mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). With the isolation and purification of HIV-1, it was shown that whole virions and crude extracts therefrom could induce in vitro some of the immunologic phenomena that were observed in clinical disease. It has been well documented that AIDS patients manifest a variety of immune dysfunctions including decreased lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogens and antigens, decreased cellular cytotoxic activities and polyclonal B-lymphocyte activation (for a review see de Martini and Parker, 1989). However, the earlier observation that there was a poor correlation of peripheral virus load with extent of disease suggested that other, extrainfectious mechanisms may be contributing to disease progression. This led to our hypothesis that soluble factors such as proteins encoded by the HIV genome and shed by infected cells may also be involved in the pathogenesis of AIDS. Through the important observations of Fauci and his colleagues, we now know that the major repository of HIV in the infected host is the lymph nodes (Pantaleo et al., 1991, 1993).

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Natural Killer Activity Human Immunodeficiency Virus Peptide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stanley A. Schwartz
    • 1
  • Madhavan P. N. Nair
    • 1
  • Linda B. Ludwig
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineState University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo General HospitalBuffaloUSA

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