T-Cell Vaccination for HIV-Seropositive Patients

  • Henri Atlan
  • Irun R. Cohen


T-cell vaccination is a way to induce the immune system to downregulate the pathogenic activities of autoimmune T cells (Cohen, 1991). The concept of T-cell vaccination, in principle, is simple: a sample of the specific autoimmune T cells is separated physically from the individual’s total pool of T cells, these autoimmune T cells are activated in vitro and attenuated so as to abolish their potential to cause harm. The individual at risk or suffering from the disease is then immunized with their own autoimmune T cells as an autologous vaccine. Vaccination with such activated and attenuated autoimmune T cells has been found to prevent or arrest the specific autoimmune process by activating an immune response within the treated individual directed specifically against the T cells comprising the vaccine and similar T cells in the body (Zhang and Raus, 1995).


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Myelin Basic Protein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amadori, A., Faulkner-Valle, G. P., De Rossi, A., Zanovello, P., Collavo, D., and Chieco-Bianchi, L., 1988, HIV-mediated immunodepression: In vitro inhibition of T-lymphocyte proliferative response by ultraviolet-inactivated virus, Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 46:37–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ameisen, J. C., 1994, Programmed cell death (apoptosis) and cell survival regulation: Relevance to AIDS and cancer, AIDS 8:1197–1213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ameisen, J. C., and Capron, A., 1991, Cell dysfunction and depletion in AIDS: The programmed cell death hypothesis, Immunol. Today 12:102–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrieu, J. M., Even, P., and Venet, A., 1986, AIDS and related syndromes as a viral-induced autoimmune disease of the immune system: An anti-MHC II disorder. Therapeutic Implications, AIDS Res. 2:163–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrieu, J. M., Even, P., Venet, A., Tourani, J.-M., Stern, M., Lowenstein, W., Audroin, C., Erne, D., Masson, D., Sors, H., Israël-Biet, D., and Beldjord, K., 1988, Effects of cyclosporin on T-cell subsets in human immunodeficiency virus disease, Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 46:181–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Andrieu, J. M., Lu, W., and Jevy, R., 1995, Sustained increases in CD4 cell counts in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus type 1-seropositive patients treated with prednisolone for 1 year, J. Infect. Dis. 171:523–530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ascher, M. S., and Sheppard, H. W., 1988, AIDS as immune system activation: A model for pathogenesis, Clin. Exp. Immunol 73:165–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ascher, M. S., and Sheppard, H. W., 1990, AIDS as immune system activation. II. The panergic imnesia hypothesis, J. Acq. Immune Defic. Syndr. 3:177–191.Google Scholar
  9. Atlan, H., 1992, T cell vaccination of HIV-seropositives: A therapeutic test for the autoimmune component of AIDS, in: 7th Cent Gardes Meeting (M. Girard and L. Valette, eds.), Pasteur-Mérieux, Paris, pp. 315–319.Google Scholar
  10. Atlan, H., and Cohen, I. R., 1992, Paradoxical effects of suppressor T cells in the onset of adjuvant arthritis: Neural network analysis, in: Theoretical and Experimental Insights into Immunology (A. S. Perelson and G. Weisbuch, eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, NATO ASI Series H., Volume 66, pp. 379–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Atlan, H., and Hoffer-Snyder, S., 1989, Simulation of the immune cellular response by small neural networks, in: Theories of Immune Networks (H. Atlan and I. R. Cohen, eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 85–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Atlan, H., and Snyder, S. H., 1993, Invariance under the order of updating in automata networks, Network 4(1):117–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Atlan, H., Gersten, M. J., Salk, P. L., and Salk, J., 1993, Can AIDS be prevented by T-cell vaccination? Immunol. Today 14:200–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Atlan, H., Gersten, M. J., Salk, P. L., and Salk, J., 1994, Mechanisms of autoimmunity and AIDS: Prospects for therapeutic intervention, Res. Immunol. 145:165–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bacchetti, P., and Moss, A. R., 1989, Incubation period of AIDS in San Francisco, Nature 338:251–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Banda, N. K., Bernier, J., Kurahara, D. K., Kurrle, R., Haigwood, N., Sekaly, R. P., and Finkel, T. H., 1992, Crosslinking CD4 by human immunodeficiency virus gp120 primes T cells for activation-induced apoptosis, J. Exp. Med. 176:1099–1106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ben-Nun, A., and Cohen, I. R., 1982, Spontaneous remission and acquired resistance to autoimmune encephalo-myelitis (EAE) are associated with suppression of T cell reactivity: Suppressed EAE effector T cells recovered as T cell lines, J. Immunol. 128:1450–1457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Ben-Nun, A., Wekerle, H., and Cohen, I. R., 1981a, Vaccination against autoimmune encephalitis with T-lymphocyte line cells reactive against myelin basic protein, Nature 292:60–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ben-Nun, A., Wekerle, H., and Cohen, I. R., 1981b, The rapid isolation of clonable antigen-specific T lymphocyte lines capable of mediating autoimmune encephalomyelitis, Eur. J. Immunol. 11:195–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bentwich, Z., Kalinkovich, A., and Weisman, Z., 1995, Immune activation is a dominant factor in the pathogenesis of African AIDS, Immunol. Today 16:187–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Beraud, E., 1991, T cell vaccination in autoimmune diseases, Ann. NY. Acad. Sci. 636:124–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Beretta, A., Grassi, F., Pelagi, M., Clivio, A., Parravicini, C., Giovinazzo, G., Andronico, F., Lopalco, L., Verani, P., Butto, S., Titti, F., Rossi, G. B., Viale, G., Ginelli, E., and Siccardi, A. G., 1987, HIV env glycoprotein shares a cross-reacting epitope with a surface protein present on activated human monocytes and involved in antigen presentation, Eur. J. Immunol. 17:1793–1798.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Berke, G., 1995, Unlocking the secrets of CTL and NK cells, Immunol. Today 16:343–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bjork, R. L., Jr., 1991, HIV-1: Seven facets of functional molecular mimicry, Immunol. Lett. 28:91–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Brunner, T., Mogil, R. J., LaFace, D., Yoo, N. J., Mahboubi, A., Echeverri, F., Martin, S. J., Force, W. R., Lynch, D. H., Ware, C. F., and Green, D. R., 1995, Cell-autonomous Fas(CD95)/Fas-ligand interaction mediates activation-induced apoptosis in T-cell hybridomas, Nature 373:441–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Burns, F., Li, X., Shen, N., Offener, K., Chou, Y. K., Vanderbark, A. A., and Heber-Katz, E., 1989, Both rat and mouse T cell receptors specific for the encephalitogenic determinant of myelin basic protein use similar Vα and Vβ chain genes even though the major histocompatibility complex and encephalitogenic determinants being recognized are different, J. Exp. Med. 169:27–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Burns, J., Rosenzweig, A., Zweiman, B., and Lisak, R. P., 1983, Isolation of myelin basic protein-reactive T-cell lines from normal human blood, Cell Immunol 81:435–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cao, Y., Qin, L., Zhang, L., Safrit, J., and Ho, D. D., 1995, Virologic and immunologie characterization of long-term survivors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection, N. Engl. J. Med. 332:201–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Carson, D. A., and Ribeiro, J. M., 1993, Apoptosis and disease, Lancet 341:1251–1254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chiocchia, G., Boisser, M. C., Manoury, B., and Fournier, C., 1993, T-cell regulation of induced arthritis in mice: Immunomodulation of arthritis by cytotoxic T-cell hybridomas specific for type II collagen, Eur. J. Immunol. 23:327–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Clerici, M., and Shearer, G. M., 1994, The Thl-Th2 hypothesis of HIV infection: New insights, Immunol Today 15:575–581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Clerici, M., Lucey, D. R., Berzofsky, J. A., Pinto, L. A., Wynn, T. A., Blatt, S. P., Dolan, M. J., Hendrix, C. W., Wolf, S. F., and Shearer, G. M., 1993, Restoration of HIV-specific cell-mediated immune responses by interleukin-12 in vitro, Science 262:1721–1724.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cohen, I. R., 1986, Regulation of autoimmune disease: Physiological and therapeutic, Immunol. Rev. 94:5–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cohen, I. R., 1989a, Natural id-anti-id networks and the immunological homunculus, in: Theories of Immune Networks (H. Atlan and I. R. Cohen, eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 6–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cohen, I. R., 1989b, Physiological basis of T-cell vaccination against autoimmune disease, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 54:879–884.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cohen, I. R., 1991, T-cell vaccination in immunological disease, J. Intern. Med. 230:471–477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cohen, I. R., 1992a, The cognitive principle challenges clonal selection, Immunol. Today 13:441–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cohen, I. R., 1992b, The cognitive paradigm and the immunological homunculus, Immunol. Today 13:490–494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cohen, I. R., and Atlan, H., 1989, Network regulation of autoimmunity: An automaton model, J. Autoimmun. 2:613–625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cohen, I. R., and Young, D. B., 1991, Autoimmunity, microbial immunity and the immunological homunculus, Immunol. Today 12:105–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cohen, I. R., Holoshitz, J., van Eden, W., and Frenkel, A., 1985, T lymphocyte clones illuminate pathogenesis and affect therapy of experimental arthritis, Arthritis Rheum. 28:841–845.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Cohen, J. J., 1995, Exponential growth in apoptosis, Immunol. Today 16:346–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Davis, D., Chaudhri, B., Stephens, D. M., Carne, C. A., Willers, C., and Lachmann, P. J., 1990, The immunodominance of epitopes within the transmembrane protein (gp41) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 may be determined by the host’s previous exposure to similar epitopes on unrelated antigens, J. Gen. Virol. 71:1975–1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Del Prete, G., Maggi, E., Pizzolo, G., and Romagnani, S., 1995, CD30, Th2 cytokines and HIV infection: A complex and fascinating link, Immunol. Today 16:76–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Detels, R., Liu, Z., Hennessey, K., Kan, J., Visscher, B. R., Taylor, J. M. G., Hoover, D. R., Rinaldo, C. R., Jr., Phair, J. P., Saah, A. J., and Giorgi, J. V., for the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, 1994, Resistance to HIV-1 infection, J. Acq. Immune Defic. Syndr. 7:1263–1269.Google Scholar
  46. Devergne, O., Peuchmaur, M., Crevon, M. C., Trapani, J. A., Maillot, M. C., Galanaud, P., and Emilie, D., 1991, Activation of cytotoxic cells in hyperplastic lymph nodes from HIV-infected patients, AIDS 5(9):1071–1079.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dhein, J., Walczak, H., Bäumler, C., Debatin, K.-M., and Krammer, P. H., 1995, Autocrine T-cell suicide mediated by APO-1/(Fas/CD95), Nature 373:438–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Elias, D., and Cohen, I. R., 1994, Peptide therapy for diabetes in NOD mice, Lancet 343:704–706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Elias, D., Reshef, T., Birk, O. S., van der Zee, R., Walker, M. D., and Cohen, I. R., 1991, Vaccination against autoimmune mouse diabetes with a T-cell epitope of the human 65-kDa heat shock protein, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:3088–3091.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ellerman, K. E., Powers, J. M., and Brostoff, S. W., 1988, A suppressor T-lymphocyte cell line for autoimmune encephalomyelitis, Nature 331:265–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Embretson, J., Zupancic, M., Ribas, J. L., Burke, A., Racz, P., Tenner-Racz, K., and Haase, A. T., 1993, Massive covert infection of helper T lymphocytes and macrophages by HIV during the incubation period of AIDS, Nature 362:359–362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Estaquier, J., Idziorek, T., DeBels, F., Barre Sinoussi, F., Hurtrel, B., Aubertin, A. M., Venet, A., Mehtali, M., Muchmore, R., Michel, P., Mouton, Y., Girard, M., and Ameisen, J. C., 1994, Programmed cell death and AIDS: The significance of T-cell apoptosis in pathogenic and non pathogenic primate models of lentiviral infection, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:9431–9435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fauci, A. S., 1993, Multifactorial nature of human immunodeficiency virus disease: Implications for therapy, Science 262:1011–1018.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ferrari, G., Place, C. A., Ahearne, P. M., Nigida, S. M., Jr., Arthur, L. O., Bolognesi, D. P., and Weinhold, K. J., 1994, Comparison of anti-HIV-1 ADCC reactivities in infected humans and chimpanzees, J. Acq. Immune Defic. Syndr. 7:325–331.Google Scholar
  55. Finkel, T. H., Tudor-Williams, G., Banda, N. K., Cotton, M. E., Curiel, T., Monks, C., Baba, T. W., Ruprecht, R. M., and Kupfer, A., 1995, Apoptosis occurs predominantly in bystander cells and not in productively infected cells of HIV-and SIV-infected lymph nodes, Nature Med. 1:129–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Frost, S. D. W., and McLean, A. R., 1994, Germinal center destruction as a major pathway of HIV pathogenesis, J. Acq. Immune Defic. Syndr. 7:236–244.Google Scholar
  57. Gartner, S., Markovitz, P., Markovitz, D. M., Kaplan, M. H., Gallo, R. C. and Popovic, M., 1986, The role of mononuclear phagocytes in HTLV-III/LAC infection, Science 233:215–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gelderblom, H. R., Reupke, H., and Pauli, G., 1985, Loss of envelope antigens of HTLV-III/LAV, a factor in AIDS pathogenesis? Lancet 2:1016–1017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Giorgi, J. V., Ho, H.-N., Hirji, K., Chou, C.-C., Hultin, L. E., O’Rourke, S., Park, L., Margolick, J. B., Ferbas, J., Phair, J. P., and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study Group, 1994, CD8+ lymphocyte activation at human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconversion: Development of HLA-DR+ CD38-CD8+ cells is associated with subsequent stable CD4+ cell levels, J. Infect. Dis. 170:775–781.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Golding, H., Robey, F. A., Gates, F. T., III, Linder, W., Beining, P. R., Hoffman, T., and Golding, B., 1988, Identification of homologous regions in human immunodeficiency virus I gp 41 and human MHC class II B1 domain, J. Exp. Med. 167:914–923.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Grant, M. D., Smaill, F. M., and Rosenthal, K. L., 1993, Lysis of CD4+ lymphocytes by non-HLA-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes from HIV-infected individuals, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 93:356–362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Grant, M. D., Smaill, F. M., and Rosenthal, K. L., 1994, Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes that kill autologous CD4+ lymphocytes are associated with CD4+ lymphocyte depletion in HIV-1 infection, J. Acq. Immune Defic. Syndr. 7:571–579.Google Scholar
  63. Groux, H., Torpier, G., Monté, D., Mouton, Y., Capron, A., and Ameisen, J. C., 1992, Activation-induced death by apoptosis in CD4+ T cells from human immunodeficiency virus-infected asymptomatic individuals, J. Exp. Med. 175:331–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Guilbert, B., Dighiero, G., and Avrameas, S., 1982, Naturally occurring antibodies against nine common antigens in human sera. I. Detection, isolation, and characterization, J. Immunol. 128:2719–2787.Google Scholar
  65. Gurley, R. J., Dceuchi, K., Byrn, R. A., Anderson, K., and Groopman, J. E., 1989, CD4+ lymphocyte function with early human immunodeficiency virus infection, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:1993–1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Habeshaw, J., Hounsell, E., and Dalgleish, A., 1992, Does the HIV envelope induce a chronic graft-versus-host-like disease? Immunol. Today 13:207–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hafler, D. A., Cohen, I., Benjamin, D. S., and Weiner, H. L., 1992, T cell vaccination in multiple sclerosis: A preliminary report, Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 62:307–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hammond, S. A., Bollinger, R. C., Stanhope, P. E., Quinn, T. C., Schwartz, D., Clements, M. L., and Siliciano, R. F., 1992, Comparative clonal analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ cytolytic T lymphocytes isolated from seronegative humans immunized with candidate HIV-1 vaccines, J. Exp. Med. 176:1531–1542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Helbert, M. R., L’age-Stehr, J., and Mitchison, N. A., 1993, Antigen presentation, loss of immunological memory and AIDS, Immunol. Today 14:340–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ho, D. D., Neumann, A. U., Perelson, A. S., Chen, W., Leonard, J. M., and Markowitz, M., 1995, Rapid turnover of plasma virions and CD4 lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection, Nature 373:123–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ho, M., Armstrong, G., McMahon, D., Pazin, G., Huang, X., Rinaldo, C., Whiteside, T., Tripoli, C., Levine, G., Moody, D., Okarma, T., Elder, E., Gupta, P., Tauxe, N., Torpey, D., and Heberman, R., 1993, A phase 1 study of adoptive transfer of autologous CD8+ T lymphocytes in patients with (AIDS)-related complex or AIDS, Blood 81:2093–2101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Hoffenbach, A., Langlade-Demoyen, P., Dadaglio, G., Vilmer, E., Michel, F., Mayaud, C., Autran, B., and Plata, F., 1989, Unusually high frequencies of HTV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in humans, J. Immunol 142:452–462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hoffman, G. W., Kion, T. A., and Grant, M. D., 1991, An idiotypic network model of AIDS immunopathogenesis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:3060–3064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hoffmann, B., Langhoff, E., Lindhardt, B. O., Odum, N., Hyldig-Nielsen, J. J., Ryder, L. P., Platz, P., Jakobsen, B. K., Bendtzen, K., Jacobsen, N., Lerche, B., Schaffer-Nielsen, C., Dickmeiss, E., Ulrich, K., and Svejgaard, A., 1989, Investigation of immunosuppressive properties of inactivated human immunodeficiency virus and possible neutralization of this effect by some patient sera, Cell, Immunol. 121:336–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Holoshitz, J., Frenkel, A., Ben-Nun, A., and Cohen, I. R., 1983a, Autoimmune EAE mediated or prevented by T-lymphocyte lines directed against antigenic determinants of myelin base protein. Vaccination is determinant-specific, J. Immunol. 131:2810–2813.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Holoshitz, J., Naparstek, Y., Ben-Nun, A., and Cohen, I. R., 1983b, Lines of T lymphocytes induce or vaccinate against autoimmune arthritis, Science 219:56–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Horton, R., 1993, Natural autoimmunity, Lancet 341:932–933.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Howell, M. D., Winters, S. T., Olee, T., Powell, H. C., Carlo, D. J., and Brostoff, S. W., 1989, Vaccination against experimental allergic encephalomyelitis with T-cell receptor peptides, Science 246:668–670.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Imberti, L., Sottini, A., Bettinardi, A., Puoti, M., and Primi, D., 1991, Selective depletion in HIV infection of T cells that bear specific T cell receptor Vβ sequences, Science 254:860–862.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Isaksson, B., Albert, J., Chiodi, R., Furucrona, A., Krook, A., and Putkonen, P., 1988, AIDS two months after primary human immunodeficiency virus infection, J. Infect Dis. 158:866–868.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Israël-Biet, D., Ekwalanga, M., Venet, A., Even, P., and Andrieu, J. M., 1988, Serum suppressive activity of HIV seropositive patients, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 74:185–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Israël-Biet, D., Venet, A., Beldjord, K., Andrieu, J. M., and Even, P., 1990, Autoreactive cytotoxicity in HIV-infected individuals, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 81:18–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Itescu, S., Rose, S., Dwyer, E., and Winchester, R., 1994, Certain HLA-DR5 and-DR6 major histocompatibility complex class II alleles are associated with a CD8 lymphocytic host response to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 characterized by low lymphocyte viral strain heterogeneity and slow disease progression, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:11472–11476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Janeway, C., 1991, Mls (minor lymphocyte stimulating): makes a little sense, Nature 349:459–461.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Jeannet, M., Sztajzel, R., Carpentier, N., Hirschel, B., and Tiercy, J.-M., 1989, HLA antigens are risk factors for development of AIDS, J. Acq. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2:28–32.Google Scholar
  86. Jerne, N. K., 1974, Towards a network theory of the immune system, Ann. Immunol. Inst. Pasteur 124C: 373–389.Google Scholar
  87. Joly, P., Guillon, J.-M., Mayaud, C., Plata, F., Theodorou, I., Denis, M., Debré, P., and Autran, B., 1989, Cell-mediated suppression of HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, J. Immunol. 143:2193–2201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Ju, S. T., Panka, D. J., Cui, H., Ettinger, R., El-Khatib, N. M., Sherr, D. H., Stanger, B. Z., and Marshak-Rothstein, A., 1995, Fas(CD95)/FasL interactions required for programmed cell death after T-cell activation, Nature 373:444–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kakimoto, K., Katsuki, M., Hirofuji, T., Iwata, H., and Koga, T., 1988, Isolation of T-cell line capable of protecting mice against collagen-induced arthritis, J. Immunol. 140:78–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Kalams, S. A., Johnson, R. P., Trocha, A. K., Dynan, M. J., Ngo, H. S., D’Aquila, R. T., Kurnick, J. T., and Walker, B. D., 1994, Longitudinal analysis of T cell receptor (TCR) gene usage by human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones reveals a limited TCR repertoire, J. Exp. Med. 179:1261–1271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kaplan, J. E., Spira, T. J., Fishbein, D. B., Bozeman, L. H., Pinsky, P. F., and Schonberger, L. B., 1988, A six-year follow-up of HIV-infected homosexual men with lymphadenopathy: Evidence for an increased risk for developing AIDS after the third year of lymphadenopathy, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 260:2694–2697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kirchhoff, F., Greenough, T. C., Brettler, D. B., Sullivan, J. L., and Desrosiers, R. C., 1995, Brief report: Absence of intact nef sequences in a long-term survivor with non progressive HIV-1 infection, N. Engl. J. Med. 332:228–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Klatzmann, D., and Gluckman, J. C., 1986, HIV infection: Facts and hypothesis, Immunol. Today 7:291–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Klatzmann, D., and Montagnier, L., 1986, Approaches to AIDS therapy, Nature 319:10–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Koenig, S. Gendelman, H. E., Orenstein, J. M., DalCanto, M. C., Pezeshkpour, G. H., Yungbluth, M., Fanotta, F., Aksamit, A., Martin, M. A. and Fauci, A. S., 1986, Detection of AIDS virus in macrophages in brain tissue from AIDS patients with encephalopathy. Science, 233:1089–1093.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Koenig, S., Conley, A. J., Brewah, Y. A., Jones, G. M., Leath, S., Boots, L. J., Davey, V., Pantaleo, G., Demarest, J. F., Carter, C., Wannebo, C., Yannelli, J. R., Rosenberg, S. A., and Lane, H. C., 1995, Transfer of HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes to an AIDS patient leads to selection for mutant HIV variants and subsequent disease progression, Nature Med. 1:330–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Kopelman, R. G., and Zolla-Pazner, S., 1988, Association of human immunodeficiency virus infection and autoimmune phenomena, Am. J. Med. 84:82–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Koup, R. A. and Ho, D. D., 1994, Shutting down HIV, Nature 370:416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kowalski, M., Ardman, B., Basiripour, L., Lu, Y., Blohm, D., Haseltine, W., and Sodroski, J., 1989, Antibodies to CD4 in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:3346–3350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Künzi, M. S., Farzadegan, H., Margolick, J. B., Vlahov, D., and Pitha, P. M., 1995, Identification of human immunodeficiency virus primary isolates resistant to interferon-α and correlation of prevalence to disease progression, J. Infect. Dis. 171:822–828.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lanzavecchia, A., 1989, Harming and protecting responses to HIV, Res. Immunol. 140:99–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Lanzavecchia, A., Roosnek, E., Gregory, T., Berman, P., and Abrignani, S., 1988, T cells can present antigens such as HIV gp120 targeted to their own surface molecules, Nature 334:530–532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lehmann, P. V., Sercaz, E. E., Forsthuber, T., Dayan, C. M., and Gamon, G., 1993, Determinant spreading and the dynamics of the autoimmune T-cell repertoire, Immunol. Today 14:203–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Levy, J. A., 1993, Pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection, Microbiol Rev. 57:183–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Levy, J. J., 1993, Apoptosis, Immunol Today 14:126–130.Google Scholar
  106. Lewis, D. E., NgTang, G. S., Adu-Oppong, A., Schober, W., and Rodgers, J. R., 1994, Anergy and apoptosis in CD8+ T cells from HIV-infected persons, J. Immunol. 153:412–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Lider, O., Karin, N., Shinitzky, M., and Cohen, I. R., 1987, Therapeutic vaccination against adjuvant arthritis using autoimmune T-lymphocytes treated with hydrostatic pressure, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:4577–4580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Lider, O., Reshef, T., Beraud, E., Ben-Nun, A., and Cohen, I. R., 1988, Anti-idiotypic network induced by T cell vaccination against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, Science 239:181–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Lohse, A. W., Mor, F., Karin, N., and Cohen, I. R., 1989, Control of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by T cells responding to activated T cells, Science 244:820–822.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Louie, L. G., Newman, B., and King, M.-C., 1991, Influence of host genotype on progression to AIDS among HIV-infected men, J. Acq. Immune Defic. Syndr. 4:814–818.Google Scholar
  111. Lusso, P., and Gallo, R. C., 1994, Human herpes virus 6 in AIDS, Lancet 343:555–556.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Lyerly, H. K., Matthews, T. H., Langlois, A. J., Bolognesi, D. P., and Weinhold, K. J., 1987a, Human T-cell lymphotropic virus IIIR glycoprotein (gp120) bound to CD4 determinants on normal lymphocytes and expressed by infected cells serves as target for immune attack, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:4601–4605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Lyerly, H. K., Reed, D. L., Matthews, T. J., Langlois, A. J., Ahearne, P. A., Petteway, S. R., Jr., and Weinhold, K. J., 1987b, Anti-GP antibodies from HIV seropositive individuals mediate broadly reactive anti-HIV ADCC., AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 3:409–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. McLean, A. R., 1993, The balance of power between HIV and the immune system, Trends Microbiol. 1:9–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Manca, F., Habeshaw, J. A., and Dalgleish, A. G., 1990, HIV envelope glycoprotein, antigen specific T-cell responses, and soluble CD4, Lancet 335:811–815.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Martinez, A. C., Marcos, M. A. R., de la Hera, A., Marquez, C., Alonso, J. M., Toribio, M. L., and Coutinho, A., 1988, Immunological consequences of HIV infection: Advantage of being low responder casts doubts on vaccine development, Lancet 1:454–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Montagnier, L., and Blanchard, A., 1993, Mycoplasmas as cofactors in infection due to the human immunodeficiency virus, Clin. Infect. Dis. 1:S309–S315.Google Scholar
  118. Mor, F., Lohse, A. W., Karin, N., and Cohen, I. R., 1990, Clinical modeling of T cell vaccination against autoimmune disease in rats, J. Clin. Invest. 85:1594–1598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Morrow, W. J., Isenberg, D. A., Sobol, R. E., Strieker, R. B., and Kieber-Emmons, T., 1991, AIDS virus infection and autoimmunity: A perspective of the clinical, immunological, and molecular origins of the autoallergic pathologies associated with HIV disease, Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 58:163–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Mosier, D., and Sieburg, H., 1994, Macrophage-tropic HIV: Critical for AIDS pathogenesis? Immunol. Today 15:332–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Nottet, H. S. L. M., and Gendelman, H. E., 1995, Unraveling the neuroimmune mechanisms for the VIV-1-associated cognitive/motor complex, Immunol. Today 16:441–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Offner, H., Hashim, G. A., and Vandenbark, A. A., 1991, T-cell receptor peptide therapy triggers autoregulation of experimental encephalomyelitis, Science 251:430–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Oh, S.-K., Cruikshank, W. W., Raina, J., Blanchard, G. C., Alder, W. H., Walker, J., and Kornfeld, H., 1992, Identification of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein in the serum of AIDS and ARC patients, J. Acq. Immune Defic. Syndr. 5:251–256.Google Scholar
  124. Orentas, R. J., Hildreth, J. E. K., Obah, E., Polydefkis, M., Smith, G., Clements, M. L., and Siliciano, R. F., 1990, Induction of CD4+ human cytolytic T cells specific for HIV-infected cells by a gp160 subunit vaccine, Science 248:1234–1237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Owhashi, M., and Heber-Katz, E., 1989, Protection from experimental allergic encephalomyelitis conferred by a monoclonal antibody directed against a shared idiotype on rat T-cell receptors specific for myelin basic protein, J. Exp. Med. 169:27–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Oyaizu, N., McCloskey, T. W., Coronesi, M., Chirmule, N., Kalyanaraman, V. S., and Pahwa, S., 1993, Accelerated apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infected patients and in CD4 cross-linked PBMCs from normal individuals, Blood 82:3392–3400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Pantaleo, G., and Fauci, A. S., 1995, New concepts in the immunopathogenesis of HIV infection, Annu. Rev. Immunol. 13:487–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Pantaleo, G., Graziosi, C., Demarest, J. F., Butini, L., Montroni, M., Fox, C. H., Orenstein, J. M., Kotier, D. P., and Fauci, A. S., 1993a, HIV infection is active and progressive in lymphoid tissue during the clinically latent stage of disease, Nature 362:355–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Pantaleo, G., Graziosi, C., and Fauci, A. S., 1993b, The immunopathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection, N Engl. J. Med. 328:327–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Pantaleo, G., Demarest, J. F., Soudeyns, H., Graziosi, C., Denis, F., Adelsberger, J. W., Borrow, P., Saag, M. S., Shaw, G. M., Sekaly, R. P., and Fauci, A. S., 1994, Major expansion of CD8+ T cells with a predominant Vβ usage during the primary immune response to HIV, Nature 370:463–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Pantaleo, G., Menzo, S., Vaccareza, M., Graziosi, C., Cohen, O. J., Demarest, J. F., Montefiori, D., Orenstein, J. M., Fox, C., Schrager, L. K., Margolick, J. B., Buchbinder, S., Giorgi, J. V., and Fauci, A. S., 1995, Studies in subjects with long-term nonprogressive human immunodeficiency virus infection, N. Engl. J. Med. 332:209–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Plata, F., ed., 1989, HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, Res. Immunol. 140:89–95.Google Scholar
  133. Procaccia, S., Lazzarin, A., Colucci, A., Gasparini, A., Forcellini, P., Lanzanova, D., Uberti Foppa, C., Novati, R., and Zanussi, C., 1987, IgM., IgG and IgA rheumatoid factors and circulating immune complexes in patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex with serological abnormalities, Clin. Exp. Immunol 67:236–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Puppo, F., Ruzzenenti, R., Brenci, S., Lanza, L., Scudeletti, M., and Indiveri, F., 1991, Major histocompatibility gene products and human immunodeficiency virus infection, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 117:91–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Riddell, S. R., and Greenberg, P. D., 1995, Principles for adoptive T cell therapy of human viral diseases, Annu. Rev. Immunol. 13:545–586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Roubaty, C., Bedin, C., and Charreire, J., 1990, Prevention of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis through the anti-idiotypic network, J. Immunol. 144:2167–2172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Sadat-Sowti, B., Debré, P., Idziorek, T., Guillon, J.-M., Hadida, F., Okzenhendler, E., Katlama, C., Mayaud, C., and Autran, B., 1991, A lectin-binding soluble factor released by CD8+CD57+ lymphocytes from AIDS patients inhibits T cell cytotoxicity, Eur. J. Immunol. 21:737–741.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Salemi, S., Caporossi, A. P., Boffa, L., Longobardi, M. G., and Barnaba, V., 1995, HIV gp120 activates autoreactive CD4-specific T cell responses by unveiling of hidden CD4 peptides during processing, J. Exp. Med. 181:2253–2257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Salk, J., Bretscher, P. A., Salk, P. L., Clerici, M., and Shearer, G. M., 1993, A strategy for prophylactic vaccination against HIV, Science 260:1270–1272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Schattner, A., 1988, Human immunodeficiency virus infection and autoimmune phenomena, Am. J. Med. 85:463–464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Schneider, J., Kaaden, P., Copeland, T. D., Oroszlan, S., and Hunsmann, G., 1986, Shedding and interspecies type sero-reactivity of the envelope glycopolypeptide gp120 of the human immunodeficiency virus, J. Gen. Virol. 67:2533–2538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Schnittman, S. M., Psallidopoulos, M. C., Lane, H. C., Thompson, L., Baseler, M., Massari, F., Fox, C. H., Salzman, N. P., and Fauci, A., 1989, The reservoir for HIV-1 in human peripheral blood is a T cell that maintains expression of CD4. Science 245:305–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Schwartz, L. M., and Osborne, B. A., 1993, Programmed death, apoptosis, and killer genes, Immunol. Today 14:582–590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Segel, L. A., Jager, E., Elias, D., and Cohen, I. R., 1995, A quantitative model of autoimmune disease and T-cell vaccination: Does more mean less? Immunol. Today 16:80–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Sethi, K. K., Naher, H., and Stroehmann, I., 1988, Phenotypic heterogeneity of cerebro-spinal fluid-derived HIV-specific and HLA-restricted cytotoxic T-cell clones, Nature 335:178–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Shearer, G. M., 1986, AIDS: An autoimmune pathologic model for the destruction of a subset of helper T lymphocytes, Mt. Sinai J. Med. 53:609–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Siliciano, R. F., Lawton, T., Knall, C., Karr, R. W., Berman, P., Gregory, T., and Reinherz, E. L., 1988, Analysis of host-virus interactions in AIDS with anti-gp120 T cell clones: Effect of HIV sequence variation and a mechanism for CD4+ cell depletion, Cell 54:561–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Silvestris, F., Williams, R. C., and Dammacco, F., 1995, Autoreactivity in HIV-1 infection: The role of molecular mimicry, Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 75:197–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Simmonds, P., Beatson, D., Cuthbert, R. J. G., Watson, H., Reynolds, B., Peutherer, J. F., Parry, J. V., Ludlam, C. A., and Steel, C. M., 1991, Determinants of HIV disease progression: Six year longitudinal study in the Edinburgh haemophilia/HIV cohorts, Lancet 338:1159–1163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Steel, C. M., Beatson, D., Cuthbert, R. J. G., Morrison, H., Ludlam, C. A., Peutherer, J. F., Simmonds, P., and Jones, M., 1988, HLA haplotype A1 B8 DR3 as a risk factor for HIV-related disease, Lancet 332:1185–1188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Stricker, R. B., McHugh, T. M., Moody, D. J., Morrow, W. J. W., Stites, D. P., Shuman, M. A., and Levy, J. A., 1987, An AIDS-related cytotoxic autoantibody reacts with a specific antigen on stimulated CD4+ T cells, Nature 327:710–713.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Tenner-Racz, K., Racz, P., Dietrich, M., Kern, P., Janossy, G., Veronese-Dimarzo, R., Klatzmann, D., Gluckman, J.-C., and Popovic, M., 1987, Monoclonal antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus: Their relation to the patterns of lymph nodes changes in persistent generalized lymphadenopathy and AIDS, AIDS 1:95–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Terai, C., Kornbluth, R. S., Pauza, C. D., Richman, D. D., and Carson, D. A., 1991, Apoptosis as a mechanism of cell death in cultured T lymphoblasts acutely infected with HIV-1, J. Clin. Invest. 87:1710–1715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Texier, B., Bedin, C., Roubaty, C., Brezin, C., and Charreire, J., 1992, Protection from experimental autoimmune thyroiditis conferred by a monoclonal antibody to T-cell receptor from a cytotoxic hybridoma specific for thyroglobulin, J. Immunol. 148:439–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Vandenbark, A. A., Hashim, G. A., and Offner, H., 1989, Immunization with a synthetic T-cell receptor V-region peptide protects against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, Nature 341:541–544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. van Eden, W., Holoshitz, J., Nevo, Z., Frenkel, A., Klajman, A., and Cohen, I. R., 1985, Arthritis induced by a T-lymphocyte clone that responds to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and to cartilage proteoglycans, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:5117–5120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. van Eden, W., Thole, J. E. R., van der Zee, R., Noordzij, A., van Embden, J. D. A., Hensen, E. J., and Cohen, I. R., 1988, Cloning of the mycobacterial epitope recognized by T lymphocytes in adjuvant arthritis, Nature 331:171–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. van Laar, J. M., Miltenburg, A. M. M., Verdonk, M. J. A., Leow, A., Elferink, B. G., Daha, M. R., Cohen, I. R., deVries, R. R. P., and Breedveld, F. C., 1993, Effects of inoculation with attenuated autologous T cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, J. Autoimmun. 6:159–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Venet, A., Gomard, E., and Levy, J.-P, 1993, Human T-cell responses to HIV, in: Viruses and the Cellular Immune Response (D. B. Thomas, ed.), Dekker, New York, pp. 165–200.Google Scholar
  160. Vyakarnam, A., Matear, P. M., Cranenburg, C., Michie, C., Beverley, P. C. L., Wahren, B., Gill, S. K., and Weller, L., 1991, T cell responses to peptides covering the gag p24 region of HIV-1 occur in HIV-1 seronegative individuals Int. Immunol. 3:939–947.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Wei, X., Ghosh, S. K., Taylor, M. E., Johnson, V. A., Emini, E. A., Deutsch, P., Lifson, J. D., Bonhoeffer, S., Nowak, M. A., Hahn, B. H., Saag, M. S., and Shaw, G. M., 1995, Viral dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection, Nature 373:117–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Weinhold, K. J., Lyerly, H. K., Matthews, T. J., Tyler, D. S., Ahearne, M., Stine, K. C., Langlois, A. J., Durack, D. T., and Bolognesi, D. P., 1988, Cellular anti-gp120 cytolytic reactivities in HIV-1 seropositive individuals, Lancet 1:902–905.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Weinhold, K. J., Lyerly, H. K., Stanley, S. D., Austin, A. A., Matthews, T. J., and Bolognesi, D. P., 1989, HIV-1 gp120-mediated immune suppression and lymphocyte destruction in the absence of viral infection, J. Immunol. 142:3091–3097.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Weiss, R. A., 1993, How does HIV cause AIDS? Science 260:1273–1279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Whiteside, T. L., Elder, E. M., Moody, D., Armstrong, J., Ho, M., Rinaldo, C., Huang, X., Torpey, D., Gupta, P., McMahon, D., Okarma, T., and Heberman, R. B., 1993, Generation and characterization of ex vivo propagated autologous CD8+ cells used for adoptive immunotherpy of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, Blood 81:2085–2092.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Young, A. T., 1988, HIV and HLA similarity, Nature 333:215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Zagury, D., Bernard, J., Halbreich, A., Bizzini, B., Carelli, C., Achour, A., Defer, M. C., Bertho, J. M., Lanneval, K., Zagury, J. F., Salaun, J. J., Lurhuma, Z., Mbayo, K., Aboud-Pirak, E., Lowell, G., Lebon, P., Burny, A., and Picard, O., 1992, One-year follow-up of vaccine therapy in HIV-infected immune-deficient individuals, J. Acq. Immune Defic. Syndr. 5:676–681.Google Scholar
  168. Zagury, J. F., Bernard, J., Achour, A., Asigen, A., Lachgar, A., Fall, L., Carelli, C., Issing, W., Mbika, J. P., Picard, O., Carlotti, M., Callebaut, I., Mornon, J. P., Burny, A., Feldman, M., Bizzini, B., and Zagury, D., 1993, Identification of CD4 and major histocompatibility complex functional peptide sites and their homology with oligopeptides from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein gp120: Role in AIDS pathogenesis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:7573–7577.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Zarling, J. M., Ledbetter, J. A., Sias, J., Fultz, P., Eichberg, J., Gjerset, G., and Moran, P. A., 1990, HIV-infected humans, but not chimpanzees, have circulating cytotoxic T lymphocytes that lyse uninfected CD4+ cells, J. Immunol. 144:2992–2998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Zhang, J., and Raus, J., eds., 1995, T Cell Vaccination and Autoimmune Disease, Medical Intelligence Unit Series, R. G. G. Landes Co., Austin.Google Scholar
  171. Zhang, J., Medaer, R., Stinissen, P., Hafler, D., and Raus, J., 1993, MHC-restricted depletion of human myelin basic protein-reactive T cells by T cell vaccination, Science 261:1451–1454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Ziegler, J. L., and Stites, D. P., 1986, Hypothesis: AIDS is an autoimmune disease directed at the immune system and triggered by a lymphocytic retrovirus, Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 41:305–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Zinkemagel, R. M., and Hengartner, H., 1994, T-cell mediated immunopathology versus direct cytolysis by virus: Implications for HIV and AIDS, Immunol. Today 15:262–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henri Atlan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Irun R. Cohen
    • 3
  1. 1.Human Biology Research Center/Department of BiophysicsHadassah University HospitalJerusalemIsrael
  2. 2.Medical Center Broussais-Hôtel DieuUniversity of Paris VIParisFrance
  3. 3.Department of ImmunologyWeizmann Institute of SciencesRehovotIsrael

Personalised recommendations