Type 1 and Type 2 Responses in HIV Infection and Exposure

  • Gene M. Shearer
  • Mario Clerici


A fundamental principle of immune regulation resides in the concept that an immune response to antigenic stimulation is self-limiting. It is generally considered that such regulation is advantageous for the immunized individual, because downregulation of the immune response after the infecting organism or virus as been cleared or controlled may prevent the development of an autoimmune or immunopathologic condition. One might expect that chronic infections or chronic antigenic stimulation of the immune system would provide examples in which immune regulation would be replaced by a state of immune dysregulation. In fact, several examples indicating that chronic antigenic stimulation results in immune dysregulation have been described, including infections with parasites (Wynn and Cheever, 1995) and viruses (Griffin and Ward, 1993), as well as autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus (Via et al., 1993). It has become clear that the immune system is regulated by cytokines, and in particular those that comodulate cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity (abbreviated CMI and Ab, respectively). Thus, cytokines can affect the strength, kinetics, and type of immune response generated following antigenic stimulation.


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Immune Dysregulation Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gene M. Shearer
    • 1
  • Mario Clerici
    • 2
  1. 1.Experimental Immunology BranchNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Cattedra di ImmunologicaUniversità degli Studi di MilanoMilanoItaly

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