PAF Promotes the Development of the Preimplantation Embryo

  • C. O’Neill
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 416)


The preimplantation embryo of mammalian species represents the period from fertilisation until the implantation of the embryo into the uterus at the blastocyst stage. In species such as experimental rodents and humans, implantation occurs 4–6 days after fertilisation at which time the embryo has 60–100 cells. During this time the embryo remains free-living within the reproductive tract and there is an exponential increase in cell numbers. Experiments in vitro have shown that growth and development of the embryo during this period is relatively autonomous requiring simple defined medium. There is no apparent absolute requirement for exogenous growth factors. Such autonomy suggests that the stimulus for growth during this period may be endogenous to the embryo.


Mitotic Index Platelet Activate Factor Reproductive Tract Preimplantation Embryo Preimplantation Mouse Embryo 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Adamson ED, 1993. Activities of growth factors in preimplantation embryos. J Cell Biochem 53: 280–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ryan JP, O’Neill C, Ammit AJ, Roberts CG, 1992. Metabolic and developmental responses of preimplantaion embryos to platelet activating factor. Reprod Fertil Dev 4: 387–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ammit AJ, O’Neill C, 1995. PAF released by preimplantation embryos binds to albumin. In: Nigam S, 3. Kunkel G, Prescott SM, Vargaftig BB (eds.), Platelet-activating factor and related lipid mediators in health and disease. New York: Plenum PublishingGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wells XE, O’Neill C, 1992. Biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor by the mouse two-embryo. J Reprod Fertil 96: 61–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wells XE, O’Neill C, 1994. Detection and preliminary characterization of two enzymes involved in biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor in mouse oocytes,zygotes and preimplantation embryos: dithiothreitol-insensitive cytidinediphospho-choline: i-o-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol cholinephosphotransferase and acetyl-coenzyme A: 1-o-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetyltransferase. J Reprod Fertil 101: 385–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    O’Neill C, 1995. Activity of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase in the mouse uterus during the estrous cycle, throughout the preimplantation phase of pregnancy, and throughout the luteal phase of pseudo-pregnancy. Biol Reprod 52: 965–971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Angle MJ, Jones MA, McManus LM, Pinckard RN, Harper MJK, 1988. Platelet-activating factor in the rabbit uterus during early pregnancy. J Reprod Fertil 83: 711–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ryan JP, O’Neill C, Wales RG, 1990. Oxidative metabolism of energy substrates by preimplantation mouse embryos in the presence of platelet activating factor. J Reprod Fertil 89: 301–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    O’Neill C, Ryan JP, Collier M, Saunders DM, Ammit AJ, Pike IL, 1989. Supplementation of IVF culture media with platelet activating factor (PAF) increased the pregnancy rate following embryo transfer. Lancet ii: 769–772Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    O’Neill C, Ryan JP, Collier M, Saunders DM, Ammit AJ, Pike IL, 1992. Outcome of pregnancies resulting from a trial of supplementing human IVF culture media with platelet-activating factor. Reprod Fertil Develop 4: 109–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bowman P, McLaren A, 1970. Viability and growth of mouse embryos after in vitro culture and fusion. J Embryol exp Morph 23: 693–704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ryan JP, Spinks NR, O’Neill C, Ammit AJ, Wales RG, 1989. Platelet activating factor (PAF) production by mouse embryos in-vitro and its effects on embryonic metabolism. J Cell Biochem 40: 387–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Roberts C, O’Neill C, Wright L, 1993. Platelet activating factor (PAF) enhances mitosis in preimplantation mouse embryos. Reprod Fertil Dev 5: 271–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stein BA, O’Neill C, 1994. Morphometric evidence of changes in the vasculature of the uterine tube of mice induced by the 2-cell embryo on the second day of pregnancy. J Anat 185: 397–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    O’Neill C, 1985. Thrombocytopenia is a initial maternal response to fertilisation in mice. J Reprod Fert 73: 559–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Orozco C, Perkins T, Clarke FM, 1986. Platelet activating factor induces the expression of early pregnancy factor activity in female mice. J Reprod Fertil 78: 549–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Smith SK, Kelly RW, 1988. Effect of platelet-activating factor on the release of PGF-2a by separated cells of human endometrium. J Reprod Fertil 82: 271–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Battye KM, O’Neill C, Evans G, 1992. Evidence that platelet activating factor suppresses uterine oxytocininduced 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2a release and phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis in the ewe. Biol Reprod 47: 213–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Spinks NR, Ryan JP, O’Neill C, 1990. Antagonists of embryo-derived platelet activating factor act by inhibiting the ability of the mouse embryo to implant. J Reprod Fertil 88: 241–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    O’Neill C, 1995. Platelet-activating factor-antagonists reduce implantation in mice at low doses only. Re-prod Fertil Develop 7: 51–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. O’Neill
    • 1
  1. 1.Human Reproduction UnitRoyal North Shore Hospital of SydneySt. LeonardsAustralia

Personalised recommendations