Homology and Transformation of Cetacean Ectotympanic Structures

  • Zhexi Luo
Part of the Advances in Vertebrate Paleobiology book series (AIVP, volume 1)


The ectotympanic bullae of whales and land mammals have many differences that resulted from the morphological divergence of whales from their ungulate ancestors. These differences in bullar structure are the product of functional adaptation of cetaceans to the aquatic environment, and ontogenetic alteration of the ancestral precursor condition of the terrestrial ungulates.


Tympanic Membrane Eustachian Tube Terrestrial Mammal External Auditory Meatus Posterior Process 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhexi Luo
    • 1
  1. 1.Section of Vertebrate PaleontologyCarnegie Museum of Natural HistoryPittsburghUSA

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